Presentation on theme: "Urbanization and Effects on Children"— Presentation transcript:
1Urbanization and Effects on Children Elizabeth Davila&Caroline Steer
2Urbanization What Does it Mean? Why Should We Care?
3Increased Urbanization A CAUSE: Increased Population in large areas such as New York City.An EFFECT: Debilitating Health Effects on Children.
4Today We Will Discuss Urbanization and….. Health Risks Asthma Housing Race/Class
5Health Risks Some Causes…… Lead PoisoningSome Causes……-Inhalation of flaking lead-based paint often used to paint road divisions and traffic signs in NYC (Blaise, 2006).-lead pipes contaminating food and water (Hooker 2006).Some Effects…….-Iron deficiency-Anemia-Negative neurological effects*All during childhood development.(Kwong, 2004)Often Found in older apartment buildings which includes subsidized housing, schools in poorer communities, and deep in the center of urban areas.
6Other Health Risks… Water Contamination Some Causes…. Old and worn water pipes in which lead and rust residue can contaminate bathing and drinking water in poor areas.Some Effects….-Disease-Diarrhea-Skin Infection(Bartlett 2003)Prüss et. al, 2002.
7Urbanization & Correlation to Asthma Asthma: “a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing.” (www.medicinenet.com).Can be triggered by many environmental factors.
8Asthma Cont’d Possible Triggers: -Air Pollution (example: sulfur dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels)-Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from high traffic areas (Lin et. al, 2000)-Poor quality housing which can contribute to the spread of allergens from second hand smoke and roaches.
9Interesting Fact“Researchers have found that children in urban New York City are hospitalized at a rate higher than that of other Americans being hospitalized for asthma” (Corburn et. al, 2006).
11Housing in Poor Urban Areas OvercrowdingIn close proximity to businessesRacial SegregationIsolation of the poor from mainstreamDeteriorationCan contribute to increasing rates of delinquency, developmental problems, and school violence.(Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 24, 1996)
12Interesting FactIncrease in truck traffic volumes near inner city homes, caused by urbanization in New York City, also results in high hospitalization rates of children with asthma.(Environmental research, Vol. 88, issue 2, pp , Feb. 2002)
13Race and Class**Urbanization is not necessarily a direct form of discrimination against the poor and people of color, but often leads to certain affects which tend to mainly affect these groups.**
14Race & Class Cont’dDeteriorating and dilapidated housing within the inner city is often filled with minority populations. (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical CARE Medicine, Vol. 162, Issue 3, pp , Sept. 2000).Environments resulting from urbanization can create a dichotomy between different socioeconomic classes and race.
15ExampleChildren in economically disadvantaged areas are being physically affected by asthma while at the same time are unable to afford the most advanced treatments. Often times in poorer urban areas, children will end up with older medicinal technologies that can actually worsen asthma in the long run (Journal of Asthma, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp , Feb. 2006)
16Interesting Fact“Asthma, one of the common effects of urbanization is the leading cause for ER evaluations, pediatric hospitalizations, and school absenteeism in New York City. The children making up these populations are largely of African American descent and low socioeconomic status” (Journal of School Health, Vol 76, p. 18, Jan. 2006).
17CONCLUSION Urbanization is NOT an isolated practice! The effects of Urbanization mentioned affect both adults and children, but children are more susceptible to these hazards.Action must be takenThe affects are disproportionateAffects the environment and human welfare