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Student Development: Past and Future CSSA Summer Institute Linda Reisser, Ed. D. Dean of Student Development July 24, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Student Development: Past and Future CSSA Summer Institute Linda Reisser, Ed. D. Dean of Student Development July 24, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Student Development: Past and Future CSSA Summer Institute Linda Reisser, Ed. D. Dean of Student Development July 24, 2014

2 Questions What does it mean to belong to a profession called “student development?” What is “student development?” How did the profession evolve? Where are we now? Where are we going?

3 Developmental Stages Colleges and Universities Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

4 How did the profession evolve? Colleges and Universities Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Student Development Professionals Stage 1 Stage 2

5 What’s a “Professional?” 1)High level of competence, knowledge 2)Commitment to ongoing learning 3)History 4)Basis in theory and research 5)Body of knowledge; literature; foundation documents 6)Core values; recognized set of ethics 7)Principles of good practice 8)Standards for assessment 9)Professional organizations 10) Common language

6 Principles of Good Practice in Student Affairs (National ACPA/NASPA Study Group, 1997) Good practice in student affairs: 1. Engages students in active learning. 2. Helps students develop coherent values and ethical standards. 3. Sets and communicates high expectations for student learning. 4. Uses systematic inquiry to improve student and institutional performance. 5. Uses resources effectively to achieve institutional missions and goals. 6. Forges educational partnerships that advance student learning. 7. Builds supportive and inclusive communities.

7 What is “student development?” higher level of competence and knowledge more complexity more integration of learning and experience transformation of consciousness more self-awareness and self-esteem building strengths actualizing potential

8 Theory and Research Cognitive Theories  William Perry - intellectual development  Lawrence Kohlberg - ethical development.  Carol Gilligan challenged Kohlberg’s model with research on women’s moral development (1982)  Mary Belenky et al. - Women’s Ways of Knowing (1987) Typology theories  Myers-Briggs Typology Indicator  Holland’s career aptitudes  Kolb’s Learning Styles Psychosocial Theories  Chickering’s seven vectors

9 Education and Identity published By Arthur Chickering (Goddard College) assessed students in 13 liberal arts colleges used the Omnibus Personality Inventory, faculty evaluations, student self-assessments, and observation identified 7 vectors—directions in which students tended to move while in college encouraged colleges to be intentional about fostering development

10 Revision

11 Chickering’s Seven Vectors 1.Developing competence 2.Managing emotions 3.Moving through autonomy toward interdependence 1.Developing mature interpersonal relationships 1.Establishing identity 2.Developing purpose 3.Developing integrity

12 How does student development happen? Nevitt Sanford The American College (1962) CHALLENGE + SUPPORT = GROWTH

13 Virginia Satir – Model of Transitions

14 How does professional or institutional development happen? Driving Forces: Readiness Culture shift Champion/catalyst Necessity Crisis Mandate Restraining Forces: Inertia Resistance Denial Lack of resources Lack of leadership Lack of institutional will

15 How did the profession evolve? Colleges and Universities Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Student Development Professionals Stage 1 Stage 2

16 Higher Ed. Origins – 820 A.D. Charlemagne realized that the Holy Roman Empire needed educated leaders. He ordered cathedrals and monasteries to provide free schools to “every boy who had the intelligence and the perseverance to follow a demanding course of study.”

17 1020 A.D. - Monastic schools were expanding throughout Europe.

18 By Two universities had been established at Paris and Bologna. Bologna Paris

19 By 1320, there were 20 universities in Europe. The Latin word for “union” = universitas.

20 “Bachelors” followed “Masters” Latin-speaking instructors competed with each other for students, in Europe.

21 Some English scholars had left Paris, and moved to Oxford and Cambridge. Religious orders opened houses for students.

22 Merton College founded at Oxford Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and Bishop of Rochester, used revenues from his manor houses to fund a scholarly community, as many private benefactors did.

23 Oxford Colleges Merton College became the model for colleges at Oxford and Cambridge.

24 Cambridge

25 The Curriculum: The Seven Liberal Arts The Trivium Grammar  reading, writing, and speaking Latin Rhetoric  public speaking & literature Logic  demonstrating the validity of propositions

26 The Quadrivium Arithmetic - basis for quantitative reasoning Geometry - for architecture, surveying, and calculating measurements Astronomy - for calculating the date of Easter, predicting eclipses, and marking the passing of the seasons Music - for worship, chanting

27 Degree Requirements Bachelor or Arts – 6 years Master of Arts – 7 years Doctor of Law, Medicine, or Theology – 12 years

28 By 1620, there were many rules about student conduct problems, enforced by the faculty. Prohibited:  hunting wild animals with hounds  walking publicly in boots  growing curls  playing football  fencing, rope-dancing, or “stage-playing”

29 Conduct Reports Account of a visitor to Magdalen College in 1507: “Stokes was unchaste with the wife of a tailor.” “Stokysley baptized a cat and practiced witchcraft.” “Gregory climbed the great gate by the tower and brought a Stranger into the College.” “Kendall wears a gown not sewn together in front.”

30 Laud’s Code The Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of Oxford, organized “the jumbled mass of rules and statutes by which Oxford confusedly governed itself.” Among other things, it barred students from:  “idling about”  going anywhere where wine or the “Nicotian herb” was sold  visiting houses where harlots were kept

31 English Model Imported to the American Colonies Pilgrims land in America. Puritans valued literacy. Colonial colleges followed English models: Harvard William and Mary Yale

32 In 1720 America... Very few students went to college. Crafts and trades, and farming and business could be learned through imitation or apprenticeships. This was also true for the new professions, like law and medicine. Only theology demanded further schooling. Education was not compulsory, except in New England.

33 - examination by the President and tutors at Yale -”read, construe, and parse Tully, Virgil, and the Greek Testament” - write Latin prose - understand Arithmetic, and - “bring sufficient testimony of his Blameless and Inoffensive Life.” Admissions Requirements for Yale:

34 Like the English colleges... “Staff” lived with the students and enforced the rules. Bachelors were taught by masters. Colleges were small communities, in pastoral, semi-monastic settings. Tutors served “in loco parentis.” There was one curriculum: The Seven Liberal Arts: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Music, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy The Three Philosophies: Moral, Metaphysical, and Natural The Two Tongues: Greek and Hebrew

35 Colonial Student Development -intellectual competence (reading the classics, disputation, rhetoric) -managing emotions (controlling adolescent impulses) -autonomy from parents; navigating the college - purpose and identity (Congregational minister)

36 Stage Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia  shift toward state- supported  secular and nondenominational  more advanced instruction  choice of majors

37 Between 1825 and 1862 More support for public funding of education Public high schools Oberlin admitted African- Americans in 1835 and women in 1838 Western frontier movement Labor movement Movements toward reform, egalitarianism More pluralistic society More kinds of colleges

38 Conflicting Priorities small and elitist vs. large and egalitarian liberal arts/classical curriculum vs. many options faculty focus on character formation vs. teaching in their discipline holistic approach vs. focus on intellectual (and vocational) competence

39 Morrill Land Grant Act growing demand for education beyond high school federal funding for large state universities many states established big universities agricultural and mechanical courses as well as liberal arts

40 Faculty roles changing  academic disciplines developing  scholarship becoming more objective  more graduate work at German research universities  faculty wanted to do research  faculty did not want to: live with the students deal with conduct problems Influence what students did outside of classes

41 Student Development - Stage 1 First dean position created at Harvard in 1870

42 Students developed their own social and intellectual activities  Greek societies  athletics  drama and music groups  publications  debating teams  literary societies

43 Deans and Advisors were hired

44 Turning point: 1901 First public junior college in Joliet, Illinois  High schools added two more years, broadened mission, added vocational programs, adult basic skills, continuing education, and community service

45 Student Development Stage 2 – “The Student Personnel Point of View” published by the American Council on Education  identified 23 student services roles  asked colleges to foster not only students’ intellectual achievement, but also their:  emotional make-up  physical condition  social relationships  vocational aptitudes and skills  moral and religious values  economic resources  aesthetic appreciations

46 After World War II GI Bill rapid growth of community colleges more specialists in student services skills and knowledge defined for each function graduate programs professional associations social scientists studied college student behavior research and theory on student development

47 The Future of Student Development?

48 Late Stage 3 Characteristics Colleges and Universities Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

49 “Open Door” or Revolving Door? - Focus on access - Funding tied to enrollment - Enrollments increase many are underprepared academically, financially, etc. -Low rates of student success -Tolerance of achievement gaps

50 Complete College America For every 10 freshmen seeking an Associate’s degree:  Five require remediation  Fewer than one graduate in three years  Between 1970 and 2009, undergraduate enrollment in the United States more than doubled, while the completion rate has been virtually unchanged

51 Graduation Rates Achievement Gaps 51

52 “Balkanization” Individual faculty prerogative - classes multiply Fragmented course-taking Culture of isolation Boutique programs Culture of anecdote Reclaiming the American Dream: A Report from the 21 st Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges – 2011 AACC

53 Winds of Change Students changing  Demographics  Conduct/students of concern Environment changing  Middle class declining  Political pressure  Increasing regulation  Concern about student debt Technology changing  Online learning/MOOCs  New ways to access information

54 Driving Forces Federal and state focus on student success Accreditation – revised standards Foundations investing in completion Performance-based funding coming

55 On overload? Compassion fatigue? Innovation fatigue? More demands? More stress?

56 How do we navigate? Use Student Development as compass. - understand who our students are - be intentional about how we deliver services, and how we promote student success - continue to build supportive and inclusive communities Use AACC’s maps. Sail through barriers. Bridge across silos with communication Learn new tools and models Pilot something scalable

57 American Association of Community Colleges Reclaiming the American Dream: A Report from the 21 st Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges – 2011 AACC

58 Destinations From focus on student access to a focus on access and student success. From funding tied to enrollment to funding tied to enrollment, institutional performance, and student success. From low rates of student success to high rates of student success. From tolerance of achievement gaps to commitment to eradicating achievement gaps. Reclaiming the American Dream: A Report from the 21 st Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges – 2011 AACC

59 From “Balkanization” to evidence-based, systemic approach From individual faculty prerogative to collective responsibility for student success. From fragmented course-taking to clear, coherent educational pathways. From culture of isolation to a culture of collaboration. From culture of anecdote to a culture of evidence. From boutique programs to effective education at scale. Reclaiming the American Dream: A Report from the 21 st Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges – 2011 AACC

60 Applications? CSSA WEBSITE -

61 Share examples... - building bridges, breaking silos, connecting and collaborating? -gathering data to assess the effectiveness of your services? -initiate something that might increase students’ completion of courses, credits, and credentials?.

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