Reading, writing, listening, speaking + computing Handwriting is introduced gradually Keyboarding allows students to recognize more vocabulary
Not just typing—students need to know pinyin, tone, and character
Practice exercises Listening & speaking exercises Composition Lab and homework Using examples from Chinese for Tomorrow, Volumes 1 and 2 第一、二册的例子
Exercises for computing and learning characters in each chapter (e.g. V.1, L.3, p. 114) Type the following passage: 王小年請他的中國朋友去看電影，可是她的 中國朋友不喜歡看電影。他問王小年去不去 打球， … Type the following pinyin sentences and select the correct characters Circle the correct character to fill in the blanks. ( 不、吓、下、丁、才 ) 課以後我們才去吃中 國飯。
Example from the Chinese for Tomorrow Teacher’s Manual, Volume 1:
Varied listening & speaking exercises to reinforce learned vocabulary (e.g. Volume 1, p. 148)
Vol. 1 – simple sentences and short compositions starting in Lesson 1 (e.g. p.58) Vol. 2 – more in-depth compositions (e.g. p.241)
Two groups: Experimental & Control Qualitative & quantitative research methods 1 st -year College Chinese – 160 contact hours Treatment spanned AY 2009-2010 (2 semesters)
Research QuestionsData Gathering Instruments Data Gathering Modes 1) How do students perceive their learning experience when using the Computer Chinese approach vs. a more traditional approach? Video-taped non-participant observation Learning Strategy survey Motivation survey (2 iterations) Post-course group discussion Post-course structured interview Observation Interview Self-report 2) How do students perform in terms of speaking & reading proficiency after using the Computer Chinese approach? ACTFL-developed Prochievement Test ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview Language Testing
N=24 sophomores 22 male; 2 female No prior formal experience with Chinese 23 native speakers of English; 1 Korean Textbook: Chinese for Tomorrow Software: NJSTAR
N=23 sophomores 18 male; 5 female No prior formal experience with Chinese 23 native speakers of English Textbook: Integrated Chinese Software: KEY
Experimental 11.86 15.79 6.54 Control 11.33 13.77 7.3 Experimental 10.82 15.91 6.75 Control 11.47 15.76 6.39
Experimental 2.75 3.85 Control 3.02 2.81 Experimental 2.27 4.46 Control 2.93 3.44
Experimental 3.16 Control 3.54 Experimental3.36 Control 2.86
Experimental Group + Communicative, conversational focus + Integrated grammar + Delayed character-writing + Functional organization with recycled vocabulary + Computer program: NJSTAR + Typing ability allows for earlier writing of paragraphs - Dependence on Pinyin which is later phased out - Definitions sometimes associated with Pinyin instead of Hanzi - Some concern about handwriting requirements in advanced courses
Control Group + Functional dialogs with storyline + Handwriting flashcards + Decent conversation activities + Computer program: KEY - Handwriting exercises led to memorization of stroke order – not meaning association - Limited focus on pronunciation - Some concern about handwriting requirements in advanced courses
Both groups demonstrated similar yet unique learning strategy development. Experimental group reported using reading as a memorization technique. Control group reported using writing as a memorization technique. Both groups demonstrated similar performance on the prochievement test while the Experimental group demonstrated a slight non-statistically significant edge. But 36% of the Experimental group reached the Intermediate level of ACTFL rating in the test while the Control group only 13%.
Both groups generally showed similar patterns in motivation, attitude and confidence. The experimental group held favorable attitude toward typing on the computer for learning vocabulary The control group was generally more favorable to writing characters than the experimental group. However, on the second survey (post-treatment), BOTH the Experimental group AND Control group reported a more positive attitude toward typing than writing. On the first survey (mid-term), the Control group reported more confidence in their speaking. On the second survey (post- treatment), the Experimental group reported more confidence in speaking.
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