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Elizabeth Stephanie Cramer, Ed.D. Mari Beth Coleman, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Making Art Accessible for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe and.

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Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth Stephanie Cramer, Ed.D. Mari Beth Coleman, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Making Art Accessible for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe and."— Presentation transcript:


2 Elizabeth Stephanie Cramer, Ed.D. Mari Beth Coleman, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Making Art Accessible for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe and Multiple Disabilities

3 Importance of Art for Students with Significant Disabilities In the opening talk yesterday morning, Ron Jones discussed how the teaching of art helped him to move past the “selfish” ideas of his youth Dr. Jones encouraged us to “make others become and realize themselves through the wonderful world of art.” Do you feel you provide this realization to all of your students?

4 What Makes an Individual Well Rounded? Just passed in the Senate is an amendment that states that the arts are essential to a well-rounded person and healthy future Providing opportunities where all of our students participate is paramount to assisting our students to become more well- rounded Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) requires that the abilities and needs of all students are considered in a continuum of learning settings: Classroom, co-taught classroom and special education teacher, and special education teacher

5 Carrie Mae Weems “I didn’t know how to deal with the essence of me.” When thinking how selfish your students awareness seems to be, instead “speak to them as they are you.” Ms. Weems challenged us in her talk yesterday to think about ways to forge art and social engagement: art and community practice and art and social dialogue

6 Art Built into our classrooms are ways our students can participate in a community of diverse learners The art classroom is a conduit to experiencing life long learning in ways that are creative and encourage problem finding and solving If this is our task as art teachers, then how do we provide this for all of our learners? One way is through educating ourselves to learn how to provide and model best practices of accommodating and improving accessibility to learning and participating in the world of art

7 Art Teacher Survey Many of you participated in a survey on accommodating and providing accessibility to students with physical, visual, severe and multiple disabilities 88 art teachers responded to the survey – Mean years teaching 13.31 – Most (56%) teach 1-10 students with physical, visual, severe, or multiple disabilities per year

8 Results: Preparedness Ratings of knowledge and skills for teaching art to students without disabilities ranged from somewhat extensive to extensive Ratings of knowledge and skills for assessing and teaching art to students with physical, visual, severe or multiple disabilities fell between somewhat minimal to medium

9 Types of Assessment Adaptations For students with physical, visual, severe, and multiple disabilities: – 73.8% assess based on participation – 67.5% assess based on effort – 57.5% assess with modified rubrics – <20% assess with unmodified rubrics, or unmodified quizzes or worksheets

10 Results: Types of Instructional Adaptations 87.5% provide peer or adult assistance with materials management 62.5% provide extended time to complete projects 57.5% provide peer or adult hand-over-hand or hand-under-hand assistance <50% use: – Special equipment – Modified materials – Projects partially completed by someone else

11 Results: Technology Solutions Only 52.6% reported having limited knowledge about assistive technology but…. – No technology solutions were reported as being used more than sometimes – Adaptive scissors, large-handled implements, and larger-sized materials were used rarely to sometimes – All others were used between never or rarely.

12 Terminology Types of Disabilities We Will Discuss – Vision Impairment Low vision Legal blindness – Complex Communication Needs – Physical Disabilities – Intellectual Disabilities – Multiple Disabilities Adaptations (Accommodations, Modifications, & Assistive Technology)

13 Adaptations Accommodations – Adaptations that do not result in changes to the number or level of standards achieved – Most students with mild disabilities will only receive accommodations – Students with visual or physical disabilities may need significant accommodations to meet all standards Modifications – Expectations for standards achievement altered – Generally for students with moderate to profound intellectual disabilities Assistive Technology

14 AT Assistive technology is defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act as, “…any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.”

15 Levels of AT No Tech – accommodations or modifications Low Tech Middle Tech High Tech

16 Basics of Working with Students who have Disabilities People First Language & Disability Etiquette – – Language places person first (e.g., “a child with a disability” instead of “a disabled child”). Understand differences in background knowledge and concept development Partial Participation

17 Materials to Explore Please feel free to explore the materials in the baggies. There are a number of tools that can easily provide alternative ways for your students with disabilities to participate in your classroom At the end of this session, please put everything back in the baggie and return it to us Thank you

18 Scenario Mari Beth is a 4 th grade student with no vision (this is somewhat uncommon – most students with visual impairments have at least some light and color perception). Stephanie is the art teacher. She will provide background knowledge and tactile experiences.

19 Vision Loss: Levels of Participation Independent Independent with materials assistance Independent with alternate materials Partial assistance - partially prepared materials such as cutting with scissors Partial physical assistance (HUH) Alternate mode (e.g., express through clay instead of paint)

20 Strategies for Students with Visual Losses

21 Vision Adaptations Students with low vision – Contrast – Color (e.g., black text on yellow background) – Brighter colors (fluorescent colors work well for some). – Light box – Enlarged text or graphics Copier Magnifiers CCTV Computerized (backlight helps) with or without magnifier (located in control panel)

22 Vision Adaptations For students with more severe visual losses – Auditory access to text: CD, MP3, text-to- speech software such as ReadPlease Free (PC) or Natural Reader (Mac). – Tactile rather than visual materials – Different medium to use other senses (e.g., represent art elements in clay rather than paint)

23 Scenario Mari Beth is a student with limited communication skills. She uses a computerized augmentative communication system. Stephanie is the art teacher. She is using strategies that are beneficial to students who use alternate forms of communication (communication device, prewarning, extra time)

24 Communication Impairments: Levels of Participation Student communicates verbally Student communicates every message with communication device Student communicates most thoughts independently via communication device Student makes most choices via pointing, gesturing, or using a communication device Student participates in only some choice- making by gesturing, pointing, or using a communication device

25 Strategies for Students with Communication Impairments

26 Communication Strategies WAIT! Build in opportunities to communicate Have boards with specific vocabulary available and ask the special education staff to train the student how to use them

27 AT: Communication Devices Low tech – Created with specific software or images pasted into a word processing document – Different boards with vocabulary for each primary form of art: painting, clay, drawing, sculpture, printmaking, photography, collage, fiber, etc. – Number of items should be consistent with student’s cognitive, physical, and visual abilities Middle tech – One message – program something that can be used frequently (I want more paint) – Multiple messages – vocabulary specific

28 Low Tech: Created with Boardmaker Software General Art Page

29 Low Tech: Images in Word Table Simple page for painting activity

30 Low Tech: Boardmaker Interactive phrases

31 Mid Tech Devices One message – something that can be repeated to provide more interactive experience (e.g., “I need more”) Multiple messages: Help special educator decide vocabulary / phrases

32 AT: High Tech Communication Devices Help the special educator design boards for each type of activity Make sure there are items that allow the student to get needs met in class (e.g., requesting materials) and have social interactions (e.g., questioning, commenting)

33 High Tech: Computerized Communication Board for Painting Activity

34 Similar Board for Clay Activity

35 Scenario Stephanie is a student with a high level spinal cord injury. She has no movement from her neck down and limited movement of her neck/head. Mari Beth is the art teacher and is using partial participation (verbal direction & physical assistance) along with assistive technology (adaptive paintbrush, elevated surface, outline)

36 Physical Disabilities: Levels of Participation **Physical disability does not mean intellectual disability – regardless of severity or inability to speak** Independent with accommodations such as more time and adapted tools Assistance with materials Verbally directing others to assist Partial physical assistance (hand-under- hand or partial completion) Full physical assistance Alternative activities (if they provide a more meaningful experience through art)

37 Strategies for Students with Physical Disabilities Nonslip material Slantboards! Positioning equipment (even rolled up towels can make a big difference in ability to access and use materials)

38 Strategies, cont.

39 Physical Adaptations Adapted implements – Shorter – Large handles – Rounded Adaptive scissors / cutting – Spring open – Double loop – Platform – Pre-cut materials

40 Physical Adaptations, cont. Clay alternatives – Use of tools instead of hands – Creating parts and directing others to put together Painting/drawing alternatives (only if more meaningful) – Use of pictures from other sources as part of product (e.g., magazines, internet) – Stamps instead of writing or drawing – Battery-operated (switch adapted if needed) scribbling or painting devices – Computerized drawing or painting software (e.g., TuxPaint).

41 Tux Paint

42 Scenario to Envision Tamika is a 3 rd grade student with multiple disabilities including a severe intellectual disability, physical disability, and limited communication abilities. Tamika attends art class with a paraprofessional. She cannot hold writing or painting implements nor control her own wheelchair. She has no verbal speech, but can nod her head for “yes” and “no.” In her special education classroom, she is working on cause/effect and independent control over her environment.

43 Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disabilities: Levels of Participation Foster independence in any way possible through adaptations previously discussed. Modifications (alterations to number and/or level of standards achieved – but still standards-based!)

44 Strategies for Students with Intellectual Disabilities Modifications: – Instruction Mountain peaks Students with severe/profound ID: Consider the addition of alternate activities (e.g., switch painting program) – Decision point: What is more meaningful - an art project completed by a paraprofessional or the student learning a concept through art (e.g., communication skill such as “more” or cause & effect)? Students with Gifts/Talents Most Students Students with ID

45 Students with MoID/SID/PID Example of modified objectives and assessment Elementary school student with MOID – Derrick will demonstrate an understanding of one of the art elements by pointing to examples when asked 4/5 opportunities. High school student with SID – Juanita will actively view examples of impressionism by clicking a switch to activate a PowerPoint presentation containing the art of famous impressionists at least 5 independent clicks in a given session 4/5 sessions. Assessment – Data collection, including writing and filming – Modified rubrics – student is accountable for partial acquisition of standards or rubric indicates amount of participation required.

46 Example of Cause & Effect PowerPoint Presentations for Art History for a Student with a Severe Intellectual Disability Student hits a switch to advance slides. Teaches causality and provides control over environment One way to address teaching standards Used in addition to other art activities

47 Impressionism: Claude Monet Claude_Monet_1899_Nadar_crop.jpg Claude_Monet_1899_Nadar_crop.jpg

48 Water Lilies and Japanese Bridge (1897-1899)

49 Water Lilies 1914-1917

50 Garden at Argenteuil. 1873.

51 Example of a PowerPoint that could be used with students who have moderate to severe intellectual disabilities Provides extra practice on fewer standards Used in addition to other art activities

52 Elements of Art Line Shape Color

53 LINES A line is the path of a point moving through space. Let’s look at some lines

54 Straight lines

55 Wavy lines

56 Working with Paraprofessionals Training & rationale! Concept of process over product may need to be explained Provide the paraprofessional with a list of task steps with levels of partial participation specified

57 Task Analysis Task Analysis Steps: Level of Participation Expected: 1. Select materialsVerbal direction 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

58 Any Questions?

59 Resources Coleman, M. B. (in press). Successful implementation of assistive technology to promote access to curriculum and instruction for students with physical disabilities. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services. Coleman, M. B., Cramer, E. S., & Bell, S. M. (in preparation). Art educators’ knowledge, attitudes, and experiences working with students who have physical, visual, severe, and multiple disabilities. Coleman, M. B., & Heller, K. W. (2009). Assistive technology considerations. In K. W. Heller, P. E. Forney, P. A. Alberto, S. J. Best & M. N. Swartzman (Eds.), Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 139-153). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Gerber, B. L. & Guay, D. M. (Eds.). (2006, 2007). Reaching and teaching students with special needs. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Gerber, B. L. & Kellman, J. (2010). Understanding students with autism through art. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Guay, B. L. (2003). Paraeducators in art classrooms, issues of culture, leadership, and special needs. Studies in Art Education, 45(1), 20-39. Nyman, A. L. & Jenkins, A. M. (Eds.). (1999). Issues and approaches to art for students with special needs. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Vize, A. (2005). Making art activities work for students with special needs. Arts and Activities, 138(4), 17, 41. Zederayko, M. W. & Ward, K. (1999). What to do when students can’t hold a pencil. Art Education, 52(4), 18-22.

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