Presentation on theme: "RELATIONS BETWEEN AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT IN CENTRAL AMERICA Carlos Murillo, CINPE."— Presentation transcript:
RELATIONS BETWEEN AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT IN CENTRAL AMERICA Carlos Murillo, CINPE
The study is focused in four main aspects Features and trends of Central American agricultural sector. Environmental assessment matrix. Rights and obligations of Central America at the WTO. Recommendations.
Characteristics of the Region Small countries with tropical ecosystems Inequitable distribution of income and capital assets Agriculture and related agro-industries account for 30 percent of GNP Agricultural exports represent 60 percent of total exports, although tourism is growing as an important source of foreign exchange. In the primary sector, small farmers count as the great majority of enterprises.
The Economic Model Structural adjustment programs provided the guidance during the last two decades. Elimination of price controls and trade liberalization were among the dominant guidelines Central America is lead towards regional and international trade liberalization, and several trade agreements have been signed Agricultural production for exports provide a substantial part of rural employment, especially for the less educated population
Agriculture and Environment Agriculture depends substantially from natural weather conditions; land under irrigation is less than 10% of total cultivated land Small land holdings are located primarily in fragile hillsides There is a notorious trend towards intensification in agricultural production and heavier dependence on agrochemicals There are valuable successful experiences of sound ecological practices and sustainable agricultural enterprises. The room for innovation and sound environmental management is quite high and promising.
Fuente: Elaboración propia basados en datos de FAO.
Environmental Impact Assessment Matrixes Expert consultations Bibliographic revision Case studies: banana, coffee, sugar cane, poultry, pork, watermelon, corn, and flowers and ornamental plants. Clear
Agriculture, Trade and Environment Agricultural production for exports is quite intensive in use of agrochemicals, yet the producers are complying with international requirements. Consumer demands in foreign markets are providing increased pressure on environmental quality standards and the export sector is responding properly. Agricultural exports have limited aggregated value, and specific recognition of friendly environmental practices as an attribute. Escalated tariffs of developed nations are among the factors that limit exports of aggregated value products
Fuente: Sistema Arancelario Centroamericano
Green Box support Measures Allowed support measures have been used in a very limited amount. There has been limited imagination to provide allowed measures of support. Limited availability of fiscal resources has been used as an argument for not providing imaginative support to agricultural production The battle ahead is not only at WTO, but also with Ministries of Finance. There is a strong need to review agricultural policies and to put aside tariff policy as the core policy issue.
Renewing the agricultural Development Model More intensive vertical integration Adding Value and Differentiation of Agricultural products Positive environmental enterprise management. Developing agricultural clusters with a geographical perspective Attracting private investment from urban areas and foreign countries
Prospects Negotiations at WTO to obtain preferential treaty for clean and value added agricultural products in OECD countries Obtain more resources of international cooperation earmarked for sustainable agriculture Diffusion of successful experiences in sustainable agriculture Embassies and policy makers more informed and committed with agriculture and its role in development