# Key Question How do you make a topographical map from a 3-dimensional surface? These are the key questions we will be investigating in this workshop.

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Key Question How do you make a topographical map from a 3-dimensional surface? These are the key questions we will be investigating in this workshop. The investigations we will perform in this workshop are actually excerpts from investigation 27.1 Variations in the Heating and Cooling of Earth In this investigation students will examine how small variations in Earth’s orbit and axial tilt effect seasonal variation of light intensity, and how that variation ultimately is responsible for the seasons.

Topography and Topographical maps
Topography is the shape of the surface of an area and includes the elevations of land formations like mountains. The topography of a region is represented by a topographic map. A topographic map is the two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional land surface. Scientists use these types of maps to understand the effects of geologic processes on Earth's surface. To test the different ideas generated from student’s hypothesis’ we will check these two variables and see how they effect light intensity on the globe

Topographic contour lines
Topographic maps show the difference in elevation through the use of contours. Contour lines connect points of equal elevation. By placing the lightweight solar cell onto the globe using the velcro attachments, we can measure the light intensity at different places on the globe. Connecting the leads of the multimeter to the solar cell will give readings in milliAmps.

Contour lines & contour intervals
Contour lines are drawn at specific intervals known as the contour interval. What is the contour interval on this map? 10 meters In this investigation, you will use a model land surface to make a contour map. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Making a topographic map-Using the GeoBox
The GeoBox has a sticker on the side. Each mark on this sticker represents one centimeter. Pour water into the GeoBox up to the first centimeter line. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Making a topographic map-Using the GeoBox
The GeoBox has a sticker on the side. Each mark on this sticker represents one centimeter. Pour water into the GeoBox up to the second line. This will be our zero mark Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Place the topo lid on the GeoBox.
Stand over the GeoBox so that you are looking down on the topo form. With the overhead projector marker, outline the perimeter of the land surface onto the lid. This will be considered “sea level,” or the 0 meter contour line. Sea level (coastline) Water covering land surface Uncovered land surface Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Label the 0 cm line Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Now, using your marker, number each centimeter above sea level.
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Remove the topo lid and add water until the water level reaches the 1-centimeter mark.
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Replace the lid. Trace the “coastline,” the line along which the water and land meet, onto the lid.
All points on this line are 1 cm above sea level. They form a contour line, a line of equal elevation. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Label the 1 cm contour line
Replace the lid. Trace the “coastline,” the line along which the water and land meet, onto the lid. All points on this line are 1 cm above sea level. They form a contour line, a line of equal elevation. Label the 1 cm contour line Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Add water to the level of the 2 centimeter mark.
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Add water to the level of the 2 centimeter mark.
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Replace the lid and again, trace and label the “coastline.”
All points on this line are 2 centimeters above sea level. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Continue this procedure until the topo form is covered with water.
Now you have a contour map of your land surface. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

The elevation for each contour represents 100 meters.
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Now you have a contour map of your land surface.
Use the tracing paper to trace what is on the lid. Each partner makes his/her own contour map. Now you have a contour map of your land surface. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Topographic contour lines
Once the contour lines are present on your map, add details to show land use using standard mapping symbols. Put the following features on your map Geographic north A contour interval A geographic scale A verbal scale A numeric scale A river A depression An airport Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Color in areas on your map where appropriate.
Water is shown in blue. Densely populated areas are shown in gray or pink. Wooded areas are in green and open areas in white. Individual buildings are solid black shapes. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

What is the direction that your river is flowing?
What is the difference in elevation between the start and end of the river? What is the overall total change in elevation in your map? What is the highest elevation in your map? By looking at your map, what area is the steepest? Remember: Look at the contours to see how close or far away they are from each other. Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Display the first overlay of the Topographic Maps Practice color teaching tool. Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Place the second overlay on the overhead. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Display the first overlay of the Topographic Maps Practice color teaching tool. Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Place the second overlay on the overhead. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Display the first overlay of the Topographic Maps Practice color teaching tool. Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Place the second overlay on the overhead. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Display the first overlay of the Topographic Maps Practice color teaching tool. Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Place the second overlay on the overhead. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Display the first overlay of the Topographic Maps Practice color teaching tool. Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Place the second overlay on the overhead. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Guided Practice: Topographic Mapping
Engage students in a class discussion to predict what the contour diagram will be for each of the profiles shown. Students may even attempt to draw the diagrams. Were your students’ predictions correct? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Observing Convection Currents
Place candle and incense under chimneys Light incense What happens to the smoke?

Observing Convection Currents
Light the candle What happens to the smoke now that the candle is lit? Can you explain your observations? Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

How does convection affect breezes?
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

How does convection affect breezes?
Images like these can be used to make overheads, inserted into electronic documents, inserted into print documents, or projected directly onto a screen with a computer projection system. Every investigation has at least one image on the CD-ROM that is part of our teacher toolkit.

Exploring Wave Speed What happens to the speed of water waves as they travel from deep water to shallow water at a beach? Does wave speed increase or decrease as waves move from deep water to shallow water at a beach?

Experiment! Fill GeoBox with water to a depth of 1 cm
Pick up one end of box 2 to 3 cm off the table. Gently drop the box from this height, and time how long it takes for the wave to travel back and forth 4 times (that’s a total of 8 one-way wave trips). The total distance is 264 cm. Divide by the time to get an approximate wave speed. Put more water in and try it again. Does the wave speed increase or decrease?

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