Presentation on theme: "STUDENTS’ OWN GOVERNANCE AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN DEMOCRATIZATION OF UNIVERSITIES: CASE STUDIES OF UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM AND MZUMBE UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:
STUDENTS’ OWN GOVERNANCE AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN DEMOCRATIZATION OF UNIVERSITIES: CASE STUDIES OF UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM AND MZUMBE UNIVERSITY By Faustin Kamuzora (Mzumbe University) and Yunus Mgaya (Univeristy of Dar es Salaam)
Presentation Outline Introduction Importance of Students’ Leadership programmes Predictors of effective students’ leadership Theories of Leadership Sinare Report (2004): Source of Crises in Tanzanian Universities Case Study 1: Democratization of Universities: University of Dar es Salaam Case Study Case study 2: Students Leadership Development at Mzumbe University Conclusion
Introduction Paper discusses students democracy process in Universities using the University of Dar es Salaam and the importance of students’ leadership development using Mzumbe University as case studies Key documents guiding the paper: – The Universities (Student Organizations) Regulations (Government Notice No. 178, 2009) and the Guidelines for Drafting of Student Organization Constitutions in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania (MoEVT, April, 2010).
Importance of Students’ Leadership programmes Leadership can be learned through motivation and training, and only a few leadership skills are innate Maxwell (1995) Formal and informal leadership development experiences help individual students place value in and exhibit heightened personal characteristics
Predictors of effective students’ leadership Individual factors: emotional intelligence, self- efficacy, self-confidence, and extroversion, Student experiences and involvement including academic involvement, student- faculty relationship, peer relationship, leadership position in class and in student organization, and University environment (Mozhgan et al.,2007)
Predictors …2 Peer influence, role model influence, extroversion, self-confidence, and self-efficacy (Lloyd, 2006) Previous leadership experiences provide students with a level of self-confidence and an indication of their success as student leaders. Mentoring and guidance while in leadership roles make the students successful
Theories of Leadership Great Man Trait Contingency Situational Behavioral Participative Management (transactional) Relationship (transformational)
Sinare Report (2004): Source of Crises in Tanzanian Universities The study unveiled several reasons which contributed to the crises in Tanzanian universities, lack of effective students leadership being one of weakest links. Specifically: – Absence of the culture of smoothly handing over leadership to the next batch of student leaders, – Ineffective or poor communication ability with fellow students, – Inadequate knowledge of the higher education institutions (HEIs) and the education sector, – Inadequate leadership skills, – Unsustainable student leadership in the long-term.
Effective students leadership defined the ability to INFLUENCE others in various directions, viz, downwards for followers to willingly follow the leaders in this context fellow students, upwards for students leaders to the dean of students, DVCs, VC, Council etc, and this can be done with a presentation of hard evidence if it is convincing enough as well being respectful and understanding on the part of student leaders. Another direction of INFLUENCE is sideways where colleagues influence each other by showing a better way, which can be done either by example of by overtly promoting a new direction.
Case Study 1: Democratization of Universities: UDSM Case Study Students are primary stakeholders of universities What is students’ own governance? – manner in which students govern their activities, functions and exercise their political affairs. – Competitive election on equal basis for both female and male students. – Election manifestos which explicitly proclaim objectives in contesting for leadership positions are key tools
Manifestation of Democracy Presence of clear election manifesto Democratic process should be understood by each of participating community members. Accountability (funds are raised and spent according to the Financial Regulations). Equality and liberty promotion Freeness and fairness of the electoral process at all stages from the nomination process, campaigning, voting, counting and declaration of results Decisions are reached through representative mechanisms and are legally binding
DARUSO Organs University Students’ Representative Council, (USRC) DARUSO Judicial organ The DARUSO Cabinet DARUSO Constitution, May 2012 (formulated according to the Universities (Students Organizations) Regulation, 2009 as amended in the year 2011 Students Baraza at the Institute, School and College Level Hall, Block Meetings
Case study 2: Students Leadership Development at Mzumbe University (MU) Just as UDSM, students at MU elect new government every year. Immediately after the president has formed his /her government (cabinet, permanent secretaries, etc) two days workshops are run to building capacities of new leaders Workshop are accorded high priorities (either VC or DVCs are invited to open or close)
Sample of topics for two days workshop TOPIC OPENING Leadership & team work Meetings & Delegation Financial Management Communication & Ethics DAY TWO Law and Ethics in Governance Conflict Resolution & Strategic Negotiations Public Facilities Management Closing
Stories of two Student Leaders Leader A: Had skills to manage tense situation in 1990s Good leadership skills and ability to exert influence in all directions Advantage of self-efficacy or previous leadership experience because he had been a students’ leader from primary to both secondary school levels Benefit of role model as his father was a leader at mid political level, among others => Due to good academic performance he/she was hired as tutorial assistant, after five years run for parliament and later rose through political ranks
Stories of two Student Leaders /2 Leader B: Relatively poor academic background as he was not successful in Advanced level exams Electoral committee had to bend the then a 3.5 GPA rule to qualify him to run for president His campaign was funded by self-interest groups Could not satisfy all funders in cabinet positions Conflict ridden leadership (living on risk of being overthrown by his enemies, particularly the Speaker)
Stories of two Student Leaders /3 He was forced to re-write a number of university exam papers as supplementary but he later finished his leadership without being overthrown. After his term his enemies had him arrested only to be rescued by University management As a result of poor leadership skills a lot of opportunity costs were incurred by the university stakeholders (students and management)
Conclusion As primary stakeholders, students have to be provided space to exercise democratisation processes of managing their own affairs Developing leadership skills of the students is a virtuous investment to universities and later to the society in general as most of these end up becoming national leaders Good leaders are developed through concerted efforts because only a few leadership skills are inborn