Presentation on theme: "STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE CONCEPTUAL & PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING THEIR LEARNING MOTIVATION Presented by : Gaunette Sinclair-Maragh Lecturer University."— Presentation transcript:
STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE CONCEPTUAL & PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING THEIR LEARNING MOTIVATION Presented by : Gaunette Sinclair-Maragh Lecturer University of Technology, Jamaica
PURPOSE OF THE CASE STUDY To highlight the perspectives of tertiary level students regarding the conceptual and psychosocial factors impacting their learning motivation To garner strategies geared towards establishing a Teaching-Learning Model for tertiary training/education in Hospitality and Tourism Management (HTM), which will enhance student learning motivation and prepare graduates for the labour market
BACKGROUND OF CASE STUDY Research was conducted at Institution X to determine whether or not the students’ learning motivation (SLM) was affected by any conceptual and psychosocial factors. This is the initial phase of a much wider study which will be comparing the factors mentioned above in two or more tertiary institutions offering training in HTM.
BACKGROUND TO RESEARCH PROBLEM Challenges relating to : the need to determine existing gaps in the learning motivation of tertiary students studying HTM variation in students’ learning needs, motivational issues, interest levels and socio- cultural backgrounds
BACKGROUND TO RESEARCH PROBLEM (Cont’d) Challenges relating to : the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process in tertiary institutions offering training in HTM National and Regional Universities Offshore Universities Teachers’ Colleges Community Colleges
BACKGROUND TO RESEARCH PROBLEM (Cont’d) Challenges relating to : the effectiveness of the teaching methodologies used by faculty for all students irrespective of their cognitive abilities and learning styles work readiness of the students industry expectations
RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the different levels of academic interest and motivation among students at Institution X What is the role of faculty in motivating students to learn? What types of learning strategies and styles are being used by the students? What are the major conceptual challenges confronting the students? What are the major psychosocial challenges faced by the students?
DEFINITION OF TERMS Conceptual Factors : Elements pertaining to mental concepts and the development of mental processes e.g. metacognition, mental abilities and types of intelligences Psychosocial factors : Psychological and social forces Psychological forces e.g. personality, emotion, attitude and behaviour Social forces e.g. value system, cultural practices and the physical environment Learning Motivation : The desire to participate in and benefit from academic activities that are meaningful and worthwhile.
LITERATURE REVIEWED The Concept of Motivation (Tuckman,1999) The Role of the Teacher in Students’ Learning Motivation (McNeil & Wiles, 1999) Conceptual Factors affecting Students’ Learning Motivation (Woolfolk, 2001) Students’ Learning Strategies and Styles (Hartley, 1998) Psychosocial Factors impacting Students’ Learning Motivation (Bandura, 1997)
METHODOLOGY Descriptive design using the survey method Instrument : Structured Questionnaire Random sampling of 15% of the student population Period : October 2004 to January 2005 Response Rate : 94%
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS DEMOGRAPHICS AGE Majority of respondents (54%) : age range Minority of respondents ( 8%) : age range GENDER Female 82% Male 18%
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 1 What are the different levels of academic interests and motivation among students at Institution X?
STUDENTS’ INTEREST & MOTIVATION LEVELS (Cont’d) Relatively high interest levels High learning goals Majority of students were motivated to focus on achieving their career objectives Selected areas of specialization assisted in students’ learning motivation Intrinsic motivation is that which motivates a student to learn without being compelled to do so (Raffini, 1996).
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 2 What is the role of faculty in motivating students to learn?
ROLE OF FACULTY IN MOTIVATING STUDENTS 49% : Faculty members have no role 39% : Faculty members have a role to play 5% : Faculty members should guide and facilitate the learning process
MOST EFFECTIVE TEACHING METHODS TEACHING STYLES The various ways in which teachers teach ( McNeil & Wiles, 1990). 92% : Democratic 8% : Authoritative 0% : Laissez Faire TEACHING STRATEGIES Patterns of instruction that are used by teachers to match their teaching style with students’ learning needs ( McNeil & Wiles, 1990). 69% : Teacher Centred / Direct Pattern 23% : Student Centred / Indirect Pattern 0% : Teacher as Facilitator / Self Direct Pattern
STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE BEST TEACHING STYLE
ROLE OF FACULTY (Cont’d) Majority of students believed that faculty members are not responsible for their learning However they : indicated the need for teacher-student interaction prefer the teacher-centred approach Teachers should act as facilitators allowing students to accomplish their learning independently (McNeil & Wiles, 1999). Majority of students stated that the quality of teaching was good. Teacher skills in motivating learners should be seen as central to teaching effectiveness (Good and Brophy, 1994).
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 3 What types of learning strategies and styles are being used by the students?
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STRATEGIES AND STYLES LEARNING STRATEGIES Methods used by students to help them to process information /learn (www.readingonline.org/articles)www.readingonline.org/articles Student-centred Learning Interactive Approach Self-directed Approach LEARNING STYLES How students approach the different learning tasks based on their cognitive ability (www.readingonline.org/articles)www.readingonline.org/articles Field Dependent and Independent Approach Deep and Surface Learning Convergent & Divergent Thinking
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES Do these students change the structure and meaning of words to ascertain their own understanding? Field Independent Students : 77% Reasons For better understanding (57%) Easier to remember ( 8 %) To deduce correct meaning ( 4 %) Doing so depends on the subject ( 2 %) No Reason ( 6 %) These students reorganize learning material to suit their own needs and conception (Hartley,1998) Field Dependent Students : 10% These students are tied to the structure and language of a text book (Hartley, 1998)
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES (Cont’d) Do these students analyze or memorize what they read? Deep Learners : 60% These students try to understand thoroughly the meaning of what they read (Hartley,1998). Surface Learners : 18% These students concentrate their efforts on memorising and not on analysing what they have read (Hartley, 1998).
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES (Cont’d) Some students considered themselves to be both deep and surface learners : 12% An individual student may be both a deep and surface learner, this however depends on the nature of the task (Hartley, 1998).
PREFERRED MODES OF ASSESSMENT
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES (Cont’d) MOST PREFERRED MODE OF ASSESSMENT Short Answers (36%):Convergent Thinker Multiple Choice(29%):ConvergentThinker Essay (25%) :Divergent Thinker True/False ( 8%) :Divergent Thinker
STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES (Cont’d) CONVERGENT THINKERS These students perform well at tests that require a single answer to the Problem (Hartley,1998). DIVERGENT THINKERS These students have the capacity to generate responses, invent new ones, explore and expand ideas (Hartley, 1998).
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 4 What are the major conceptual challenges confronting the students?
METACOGNITION The capabilities of thinking critically, reasoning, comprehending, solving problems and learning (Woolfolk, 2001). 92% : Used critical thinking to solve problems and make sound decisions 90% : Reasoned rationally and objectively 80% : Understood the material taught 75% : Planned and coordinated learning activities with available resources
STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT : STAGESAGE (Years) DESCRIPTION (Piaget, 1996) Sensorimotor0 - 2Sensory experiences Pre-Operational2 - 7Use of symbols & pictures Concrete Operational7 - 11Use of diagrams and charts Formal OperationalAdolescents & Adults Logical and critical thinking, reasoning & problem solving
STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Cont’d)
CONCEPTUAL CHALLENGES Although the majority of students have metacognitive abilities they were at the concrete operational level This situation frequently occurs among adult learners due to a combination of maturation problems and inappropriate learning environment (Piaget, 1996).
CONCEPTUAL CHALLENGES (Cont’d)
Majority of the students have linguistic/verbal and also interpersonal intelligences Persons are endowed with their individual intelligence type which impacts on how and what they learn (Kulieke et al 1990). Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences also explains the reasons why people can perform certain tasks very well but perform less well or poorly on others (Gardner, 2008).
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 5 What are the major psychosocial challenges faced by the students?
PSYCHOSOCIAL CHALLENGES SELF- EFFICACY The belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action needed to achieve goals (Bandura, 1997). 39% : Have willpower to learn 16% : Are self-directed learner 16% : Are capable of learning 25% : Use various learning strategies 4% : No response
PSYCHOSOCIAL CHALLENGES (Cont’d)
HOME ENVIRONMENT 60% : Positive Impact 30% : Negative Impact SURROUNDING COMMUNITY 60% : No Impact 25 % : Impact CONFLICTING ROLES 54% : No challenges 46 % : Were challenged SOCIAL CONNECTION 52% : No Connection 36% : Felt Connected TRANSITION CHALLENGES 48% : No challenges 37% : Were challenged CLUB MEMBERSHIP 54% : Non-member 37% : Were members
PSYCHOSOCIAL CHALLENGES (Cont’d) PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Majority students have : High levels of Self-Efficacy Self-determined learners display high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) Self-efficacy is needed for self directed learning (Bandura, 1997) Interest in Academic welfare Learning Motivation Goals Little Emotional Constraints SOCIAL FACTORS Majority of homes are conducive to learning The community has no significant impact on SLM Having little or no connection to the university’s environment had no impact on SLM
SUMMARY Students were intrinsically motivated to achieve their career goals The students’ high levels of motivation stimulated their interest in selecting their respective programmes Some students (minority) expressed the importance of faculty’s role in their learning motivation Although the majority of students were motivated by the democratic teaching style, they preferred the teacher-centred approach
SUMMARY (Cont’d) Although the students had metacognitive abilities and were deep and field independent learners, they were operating at the concrete operational cognitive stage which points to their ability to do basic tasks and the need for close supervision Operating at this level will pose a challenge as it suggests surface learning. Students who are critical thinkers, problem solvers and good decision makers are at the formal operational stage ( Piaget 1996).
SUMMARY (Cont’d) Students had both verbal and interpersonal intelligences and these are critical in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry Students’ high levels of self-efficacy, interest and learning goal attributed to their learning motivation Students’ learning motivation was not gravely affected by the social forces identified ( home, community, tertiary level transition, other roles) Majority students however did not feel connected to the university and this did not impact significantly on their learning
IMPLICATIONS Most Obvious Implication : Students’ Stage of Cognitive Development High motivational levels + high interest levels + appropriate teaching strategies & styles + deep and field independent learners + convergent thinkers + concrete operational levels = cognitive & competency challenges Undergraduate students are expected to be employed at the conceptual level in businesses. Therefore the ideal is : High motivational levels + high interest levels + appropriate teaching strategies & styles + deep & field independent learners + divergent thinkers + formal operational levels
IMPLICATIONS (Cont’d) Graduates may be at risk in the workplace by not having as competitive an advantage in terms of upward mobility compared to students from other tertiary institutions. Tertiary Institutions may be failing somehow in terms of : Preparing competent individuals for the labour market Moulding young and experienced adults for new roles in the industry Creating equality of learning opportunities Preparing a new generation of citizens in this globalize environment
CONCLUSION Students are intrinsically motivated and this is a catalyst for the achievement of high academic standards Faculty members are expected to facilitate learning by providing the needed guidance Students’ Learning Motivation is also not challenged by their level of intelligence as the majority of students had linguistic and interpersonal intelligences
CONCLUSION (Cont’d) Their Learning Motivation is impacted by their convergent thinking pattern and level of cognitive development The Learning Motivation of students is not impacted significantly by the psychosocial factors investigated
RECOMMENDATIONS APPROACH : A Wholistic Approach to manage the students’ learning motivation and create synergy among the various stakeholders in the education process SYSTEM : A Teaching-Learning Model that will will stipulate standards from the applicant selection process to the time of graduation and job placement PLAN : A Cognitive Development Management Plan that will be an integral part of the Strategic Management Plan of Tertiary Institutions
RECOMMENDATIONS (Cont’d) + High Motivational Levels + High Interest Levels + Appropriate Teaching Strategies & Styles + Deep and Independent Learning + Divergent Thinking + Formal Operational Level = Cognitive Development & High Competency Level
LIMITATIONS To date the case study has only been conducted at Institution X The case study did not focus on gender or age
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