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Engaging Students In Learning

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1 Engaging Students In Learning
Comprehensive Induction Program

2 Component 3- Criterion 3a
Delaware Performance Appraisal System II Activities and Assignments Grouping of Students Instructional Materials and Resources Structure and Pacing of the Lesson Component Three depends on Components One and Two for success. Without a structure for instruction and a productive learning environment, content delivery will be affected and student learning will be diminished. Component Three is observed in the classroom. As teachers deliver content, they engage students in the process of learning and involve them in decisions when possible. Teachers instruct students in the content and help students see its value by making connections to other disciplines. This is accomplished through clear and accurate communication with students about their individual work and progress toward the standard(s). Teachers understand the need to be flexible and responsive to the needs of the class, as a whole, as well as individual students. They adjust lessons and assignments to meet student needs. Teachers understand the value of formative and summative assessment data and employ that information as they plan for future instruction. Criterion 3a focuses specifically on Engaging Students in Learning and addresses the following elements:  Activities and assignments  Grouping of students  Instructional materials and resources  Structure and pacing of the lesson The information provided in this workshop is intended to provide guidance and support to new teachers so they may acquire the skills, knowledge and experience to become more proficient in their ability to engage students in learning. Component 3- Criterion 3a

3 What Is Student Engagement
Confident teachers inspire their students. Successful students, in turn, create confident teachers. What does effective delivery look like, and how does it give a teacher control? Student Engagement

4 Alone: Three minutes—think of a time (as teacher, learner or observer) when you experienced high levels of student engagement. Group: Share your experience. Brainstorm a list on chart paper: What does student engagement look like? Activity

5 Student Engagement Defined
Engaged Attentive Persistent Connected Committed “Students who are engaged are involved, but not all students who are involved are engaged.”- Philip Schlechty “It is not the performance of teachers that “causes” students to learn. Rather, it is the performance of students that should be the assumed cause of learning.”- Philip Schlecthy Therefore, teachers must posses the skills necessary to design coursework and activities that the students themselves find engaging. So, how do we know when a student is engaged? There are four components that are always present when students are engaged. Those four components are: The engaged student is attentive - In the sense that he/she pays attention to and focuses on the tasks associated with the work being done. The engaged student is committed - He/she voluntarily (without the promise of extrinsic awards or the threat of negative consequences) deploys scarce resources under his/her control (time, attention, and effort) to support the activity called for by the task. The engaged student is persistent- He/she sticks with the task even when it presents difficulties. The engage student is connected- He/she finds meaning and value in the tasks that make up the work. Main Point- The main difference between students who are engaged and those who are not is the way they respond to the situation or tasks at hand. Student Engagement Defined

6 5 Student Responses to Work
Engagement - (High Attention and Commitment to the tasks at hand) Strategic Compliance - (High Attention and Low Commitment the tasks at hand) Ritual Compliance - (Low Attention and Low Commitment to the tasks at hand) Retreatism - (No Attention and No Commitment) Rebellion - (Diverted Attention) Teachers should be aware of certain response indicators that will help them determine the level of student engagement. 1. Engagement - The student volunteers resources under his/her control (time, effort, and attention). The student is attentive to the task because he/she finds personal meaning and value in the task. The student sees the task as responding to motives and values he/she brings to the work. The student persists with the task even when he/she experiences difficulty and does not compromise personal standards for the completion of the task. 2. Strategic Compliance - The student allocates only as much time, energy, and resources as are required to get the reward offered or desired. The student is attentive to the task because he/she perceives the receipt of some desired extrinsic reward which is conditionally available to those who pay attention to the task and do what is required of them. The student persists with the task only up to the point of ensuring that the desired reward is offered, and the student is willing to accept the reward and abandon the task even though he/she may not be personally satisfied that the work done is of the quality that he/she could produce. 3. Ritual Compliance - The student does only those things that must be done and does little or nothing outside the context of direct supervision by the teacher. The student pays minimal attention to the work, is easily distracted, and is constantly seeking alternative activities to pursue. For example, it appears that texting has now become a favorite pastime for those who are ritually compliant. The student is easily discouraged from completing the task and regularly tries to avoid the task or get the requirements of the work waived or compromised. 4. Retreatism - The student does nothing and, when forced through direct supervision to do the task, either engages in ritual behavior or rebellion. The student does not attend to the work, but does not engage in the activities that distract others. The student employs strategies to conceal his/her lack of involvement- sleeping with eyes wide open and smiling from time to time. 5. Rebellion - The student overtly refuses to comply with the requirements of the task. This refusal may involve cheating , refusing to do the work, or even doing other work in place of what is expected. Alienation rather than commitment is evident. Unlike the retreaters, students who rebel are likely to be active in their rejection of the task, up to and including efforts to sabotage the work, cheat, and build negative coalitions of other students around the work and the rejection of the values the work suggests. 5 Student Responses to Work

7 Typical Student Activities
Engaged Create Evaluate Analyze Apply Understand Remember Strategically Compliant Recall/ Remember Ritually Compliant Recall-Short Term Retreatist Learn Little Negative Attitudes Disengages/ Disrupts Rebel Disrupts This slide shows typical student activities associated with each type of response. Typical Student Activities

8 Delivering Engaging Instruction
Student Engagement

9 Improving Your Charisma
Make the students the center of your classroom. Smile at your students. Greet your students when they walk into the classroom. Overlook what you can. Establish procedures and routines early. Laugh at yourself. Eliminate personal habits that may annoy kids. Use multiple modes of learning. Talk less than your students. Make the students the center of your classroom- make them the focus of your attention. Smile at your students - What if you don’t feel like doing it? Do it anyway. Remember that your most difficult students are the ones who most need your smiling support. Greet your students at the door - Convey the message that you are glad to see them. Overlook what you can- There is a fine line between strict and too-strict. If you spend your day focused on minor problems, you won’t have time to attend to the larger ones. Establish procedures and routines early - Students who know what to do and how to do it are much more comfortable. Laugh at yourself- Let your students know you have enough confidence not to take yourself too seriously. Eliminate annoying personal habits - Some of the most common behaviors include: monotone voice, poor eye contact, sloppy speech patterns, and distracting gestures. Use multiple modes of learning - Include visual aides, technology, music, etc. to involve every student in every lesson every day. Talk less than your students - Ask questions that will encourage students to share their ideas with you. Improving Your Charisma

10 Avoid Common Pitfalls Don’t Do Talk more than your students.
Design activities that encourage your students to speak with each other. Create lessons that allow your students to be passive. Skip the worksheets and ask students to solve puzzles, debate points, engage in other open-ended thinking activities. Let the push for accountability cause you to neglect those “teachable moments”. Turn any occasion into a learning event in your classroom. Allow yourself to drift when it comes to finding the correct pace for delivery of instruction. Plan alternate lessons in case the pace you initially set for a lesson needs adjustment. Allow your students to sit around with nothing to do while they wait for class to begin or end. Plan more work than you think your students will be able to accomplish. Confuse your students by giving hurried or unclear directions. Deliver a combination of written and verbal directions and check for student understanding. Avoid some of these common pitfalls to increase your chances of delivering high engagement instruction. Avoid Common Pitfalls

11 Improve Your Oral Presentations
USE YOUR VOICE EFFECTIVELY VIDEOTAPE YOURSELF SET THE STAGE MASTER THE ART OF PAUSE KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE LEARN TO MAINTAIN EYE CONTACT COMMAND ATTENTION Videotape Yourself - Make sure you assess your presentations. (Ask - what annoying verbal/non-verbal tics do I have?, is my voice loud enough?, do I include all of my students?, do I project enthusiasm, authority, and confidence?, do I command the attention of my students when I speak?, what messages do I convey through my body language?, etc.) Master the Art of Pause - When a student speaks, mentally count to three before speaking or allowing others to jump in. When students are slow to respond, don’t rush to save them from the awkward silence. Learn to Maintain Eye Contact - Focus your attention on every student by making it a point to keep your eyes focus on two or three students for a few seconds and then moving on to another group. Set the Stage- Provide a preview of the lesson in a way that will cause the students to want to know more about what will be discussed. Possibilities include: Post a motto, slogan, or other catchy phrase related to the lesson in a conspicuous spoke, and ask students to comment on it. Display and talk about unusual objects related to the lesson. Give students part of a scenario before the presentation. Stop and discuss it. Finish the scenario during the presentation. Have students enact a brief scene related to the topic under study. Play a game relate to the topic of the lesson. Do an experiment and have the students explain what they observed. Take a poll of your students on some aspect of the topic. Pose a problem for students to decipher. Use the lesson to solve the problem. Know Your Audience - Pay attention to their nonverbal cues. Add some excitement if you see the students do any of the following: Watching the clock Looking confused Flipping through their notebooks Refusing to look at you Doing homework for another class Command Attention- Arrange a signal with students so they know that they are supposed to stop what they are doing and listen. Try some of the strategies listed below. Teach your students to hold up a hand and stop talking when they see you holding up yours. Count backward from ten. Display a timer or a clock on a screen and countdown until students are paying attention. Sing a line or two of a song and let the students finish it. Establish a rhythmic clapping pattern that students will follow once you start. Use Your Voice Effectively - Use different volumes for different purposes (Note: shouting to be heard is never effective). Try talking in a dramatically lower and slower tone to catch their attention. Vary the speed at which you speak. And avoid common verbal mannerisms such as repeating “you know”, “like”, etc. Use Body Language to Motivate Your Listeners - Use nonverbal cues such as leaning forward to indicate you are interested in what they have to say, make eye contact, nod your head, smile, and give a thumbs up. Avoid standing with your hands on your hips, tapping your fingers impatiently, ignoring a student who is upset, snapping your fingers at students, etc. USE BODY LANGUAGE TO MOIVATE YOUR LISTENERS Improve Your Oral Presentations

12 Make a Point Students Remember
Include names, interests, hobbies and cultures of your students when creating your lessons. Help Students Make a Personal Connection to the Lesson Have students create their own PPT slide summarizing the key points of your lesson. Present a Slideshow Having students hear from members of the professional community who have a connection to the topic can reinforce points you are trying to make. Invite Guest Speakers Into Your Class Try using newspapers, cartoons, music, magazines, etc. when trying to demonstrate how you want something done. Use a Variety of Media Immediately play a video that supports the statement. Display a Statement on the Board Use theater techniques to stage a reenactment. Wear a costume (or have students wear costumes) to re-emphasize a point. Surprise the Students With Theater Regardless of which strategies you choose to use, always remember the importance of planning and preparing to increase your chance of success. Make a Point Students Remember

13 Engage Students During Lectures
From time to time, it may be necessary to deliver important information through a lecture. This can be a tricky situation; sometimes, teachers assume their students are paying attention, only to find out later that several students have missed many of the key points of the lesson. To help keep students on track during a lecture, try some of these solutions: Tell students a specific number of facts they will learn throughout the lesson. Check them off as you address them during the lecture. Let the students know up front how much time you have to address a topic. Share a time so students are aware of the time remaining. Give students an outline of the lecture. Stop periodically and call on students to share a fact that they learned earlier in the lesson. Have students share their notes with each other at points during the lesson to fill in missing information. If a lecture involves events in a particular order, hand out a sheet at the beginning of the lesson with the events in a random order. As the lesson progresses, have the students rearrange the events in the correct order. Put 10 key words from the lecture on a handout. Ask the students to mark them off as you speak. Tell them you will discuss 9 of the words, and that they are responsible for telling you which one was not included in the lecture. Engage Students During Lectures

14 Engage Students in Discussions
Before During After Post procedures in a prominent place Determine the purpose of the discussion Create the questions your students will discuss Arrange the room Enforce the procedures Introduce the discussion topic Explain the importance of supporting their opinions Encourage deeper thinking and risk taking Recognize speakers Get out of the way Have students reflect (written or oral) What went well Suggestions for improvement Retelling of the important points Written summary Class discussions are an excellent way to deliver instruction that students will remember for a long time and help students become active learners. If you choose to implement class discussions, your role is to plan the discussion, keep the conversation going, and wrap up at the end. To help you organize your role, think about these discussions as three individual components (before the discussion, during the discussion, and after the discussion). There are critical actions you should take during each of these components to ensure a success discussion takes place. Before the discussion: Procedures - might include the following guidelines Wait until the moderator recognizes you before you speak Do not speak after you have reached your limit of speaking opportunities Treat other people’s opinions with tolerance and respect Listen more than you speak Determine the purpose - What outcomes do you want. Be sure to convey the purpose of the discussion to focus the conversation. Create questions - Discussion questions should require higher order thinking skills. When appropriate, give students copies of the questions in advance. During the discussion: Introduce the topics - use overhead projector or write them on the board. Encourage deeper thinking - Ask students to comment on someone else’s response, ask for elaboration, ask a student to refute what has been said, or ask for restatement Engage Students in Discussions

15 Engage Students With Games
People of all ages have a natural interest in playing games. Capitalize on this interest with your students by using games to deliver your instruction. Games provide opportunities for interaction, offer immediate feedback, make the work relevant, allow practice of the content, and motivate students to collaborate on higher order thinking skills. Some possible games include: Talk show - Have your students stage a talk show to interview characters form fiction or history or in any other discipline. Choose an outgoing and reliable student to serve as the host, and let that student interview other students, who pose as guests. Storytellers - Have students sit in a circle. To play, one student begins a story, stops after a few seconds, and then points to another student, who continues the story. Ball Toss - Line up your students in two teams facing each other. As soon as a student correctly answers a question you ask, that student tosses a soft foam ball to a student on the other team. That student has to answer the next question. Simulation - You can create a variety of scenarios. One popular version is to have students imagine that they are shipwrecked on an deserted island and have to plan ways to survive. One, Two, and You’re Outta Here - Stand at the door at the end of class with a set of flash cards or questions that require a quick response. For a student to leave class, he or she has to answer two questions correctly. Engage Students With Games

16 Engage Students With Graphic Organizers
Concept Maps Description Maps Time Sequence Maps Cause-and-Effect Maps When students create/use graphic organizers, they see the relationships among the important elements in the assignment. Concept Maps - Allow students to understand the attributes of a concept. Herringbone Maps Venn Diagrams Spider Maps Novel or Story Matrices Description Maps - Allow students to comprehend the facts that describe a person, place, thing, idea or event. Characterization Maps Family Trees Webbing Episode Maps Time Sequence Maps - Allow students to put items in chronological order. Timelines Continuum Maps Storyboards and Maps Cycle Diagrams Cause-and Effect Maps Flowcharts Stepladder charts Problem-and-solution charts The internet has a wealth of websites with resources for the creation of and use of graphic organizers. Engage Students With Graphic Organizers

17 Student Engagement Strategies Summarized
Cultivate your communication skills and charisma Fully plan and prepare for oral presentations Pay attention to all aspects of delivery (voice, demeanor, and body language) Plan ways to encourage students to stay on track and on task Take advantage of the power of play Use graphic organizers Use hands-on manipulatives to enliven lessons Provide examples of what you expect of students Even mundane seatwork can be made more appealing and creative with careful planning Student Engagement Strategies Summarized

18 Schlechty, Phillip C. Engaging Students: The Next Level of Working On The Work. First ed. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, Print. Thompson, Julia G. The First-Year Teacher's Survival Guide. Third ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Print. Sources

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