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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid,

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Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid, Reeve, Smith

2 CHAPTER 10 Engaging Students in Learning

3 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Chapter 10 Engaging Students in Learning Themes of the chapterThemes of the chapter –The levels of students’ engagement in the classroom can be an indicator of their level of motivation –Students can be motivated by both internal and external factors –There are strategies teachers can use to help students become more engaged in the classroom

4 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions What is engagement, and why is it important?What is engagement, and why is it important? What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? How can teachers support students’ psychological needs?How can teachers support students’ psychological needs? How can teachers motivate students during uninteresting activities?How can teachers motivate students during uninteresting activities?

5 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions In what ways can teachers spark students’ engagement?In what ways can teachers spark students’ engagement? In what ways can teachers calm students’ anxieties and fears?In what ways can teachers calm students’ anxieties and fears? How can teachers engage diverse learners and students with special needs?How can teachers engage diverse learners and students with special needs?

6 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Engagement The extent of a student’s behavioural intensity, emotional quality, and personal investment in a learning activityThe extent of a student’s behavioural intensity, emotional quality, and personal investment in a learning activity

7 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Four Interrelated Aspects of Engagement

8 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition What Engagement Looks Like – extent to which a student displays high attention, strong effort, and enduring persistence on a learning activityBehavioural engagement – extent to which a student displays high attention, strong effort, and enduring persistence on a learning activity – extent to which a student’s task involvement is characterized by positive emotion, e.g. interest and enjoymentEmotional engagement – extent to which a student’s task involvement is characterized by positive emotion, e.g. interest and enjoyment – extent to which a student mentally goes beyond the basic requirements of a learning activity and invests himself or herself in the learning in a committed wayCognitive engagement – extent to which a student mentally goes beyond the basic requirements of a learning activity and invests himself or herself in the learning in a committed way – student’s expression of self during a learning activity so as to influence constructively how the teacher presents the lessonVoice – student’s expression of self during a learning activity so as to influence constructively how the teacher presents the lesson

9 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Why Engagement Is Important Makes learning possibleMakes learning possible Predicts how well students fare in school, especially with respect to achievementPredicts how well students fare in school, especially with respect to achievement Is malleableIs malleable Gives teachers the moment-to-moment feedback they need to determine how well their efforts to motivate students are workingGives teachers the moment-to-moment feedback they need to determine how well their efforts to motivate students are working

10 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Two Approaches to Promoting Motivation and Engagement Traditional Approach The teacher tries to directly engage students in the learning activityThe teacher tries to directly engage students in the learning activity – Offers an attractive incentive, and students respond by working hard to gain it – Sets a goal, and students work hard to perform up to that level – Models appropriate behaviour, and students emulate what they see

11 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Dialectic Approach The reciprocal, interdependent, and constantly changing relationship between a student’s motivation and the classroom conditions that support rather than frustrate that motivationThe reciprocal, interdependent, and constantly changing relationship between a student’s motivation and the classroom conditions that support rather than frustrate that motivation Two Approaches to Promoting Motivation and Engagement

12 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

13 Dialectic Approach : Three Principles of Motivation Principle I – Students have motivation of their own that explains why they are willing to engage in learning activitiesPrinciple I – Students have motivation of their own that explains why they are willing to engage in learning activities Principle II – Teachers motivate students when they provide classroom conditions that nurture students’ motivationPrinciple II – Teachers motivate students when they provide classroom conditions that nurture students’ motivation Principle III – How well or how poorly teachers involve and nurture students’ motivational resources is reflected in the extent of students’ engagementPrinciple III – How well or how poorly teachers involve and nurture students’ motivational resources is reflected in the extent of students’ engagement Two Approaches to Promoting Motivation and Engagement

14 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

15 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation – the inherent propensity to engage one’s interests and to exercise and develop one’s capacitiesIntrinsic motivation – the inherent propensity to engage one’s interests and to exercise and develop one’s capacities – an environmentally created reason to engage in an action or activityExtrinsic motivation – an environmentally created reason to engage in an action or activity

16 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Hidden Costs of Rewards The unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects that extrinsic rewards sometimes have on intrinsic motivation, high-quality learning, and autonomous self-regulationThe unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects that extrinsic rewards sometimes have on intrinsic motivation, high-quality learning, and autonomous self-regulation

17 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Richard Koestner and colleagues at McGill University Motivation’s Two Faces – Autonomy Support Characteristics of autonomy support include: –Taking perspective of the student –Avoiding controlling language –Encouraging initiative and support as much as possible Canadian Research into Practice

18 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Using Extrinsic Motivators Effectively

19 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How to Motivate Students with Intellectual Disabilities Do not useDo not use –: a teacher’s enduring tendency to engage students in learning activities by promoting their extrinsic motivation and introjected regulation during the lesson –Controlling motivating style: a teacher’s enduring tendency to engage students in learning activities by promoting their extrinsic motivation and introjected regulation during the lesson

20 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Students with intellectual disabilities haveStudents with intellectual disabilities have –Diminished cognitive abilities –Low autonomy Therefore, it is good to help boost their autonomy by teaching them choice-making and self-advocacy skillsTherefore, it is good to help boost their autonomy by teaching them choice-making and self-advocacy skills How to Motivate Students with Intellectual Disabilities

21 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition From Extrinsic to Intrinsic Motivation on a Continuum Amotivation – lack of any type of motivation, neither intrinsic nor extrinsicAmotivation – lack of any type of motivation, neither intrinsic nor extrinsic ExtrinsicExtrinsic –Externally regulated: motivation from outside, e.g., a reward –Introjected: motivation from inside but pressuring voice, indicating that one must act to avoid guilt or shame –Identified: Motivation from internalizing the way of behaving, because it is a useful or important thing to do Intrinsic – motivation from psychological needs that reflect interest and enjoymentIntrinsic – motivation from psychological needs that reflect interest and enjoyment

22 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Autonomy Psychological need to experience self- direction in the initiation and regulation of one’s behaviourPsychological need to experience self- direction in the initiation and regulation of one’s behaviour An increase in autonomy can cause an increase in intrinsic motivation if the perceived locus of causality is internalAn increase in autonomy can cause an increase in intrinsic motivation if the perceived locus of causality is internal Psychological Needs

23 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Teachers Supporting Autonomy – an interpersonal relationship or classroom climate that involves, nurtures, and satisfies the student’s need for autonomyAutonomy-supportive environment – an interpersonal relationship or classroom climate that involves, nurtures, and satisfies the student’s need for autonomy – a teacher’s enduring tendency to engage students in learning activities by promoting their intrinsic motivation and identified regulation during the lessonAutonomy-supportive motivating style – a teacher’s enduring tendency to engage students in learning activities by promoting their intrinsic motivation and identified regulation during the lesson Autonomy

24 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How Autonomy-Supportive Teachers Motivate Students Nurture inner motivational resourcesNurture inner motivational resources Rely on informational, noncontrolling languageRely on informational, noncontrolling language Communicate value in uninteresting activities and add rationales to requestsCommunicate value in uninteresting activities and add rationales to requests Acknowledge and accept students’ expressions of negative affectAcknowledge and accept students’ expressions of negative affect Autonomy

25 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Why are teachers so controlling? They believe that controlling strategies are more effective than autonomy- supportive strategiesThey believe that controlling strategies are more effective than autonomy- supportive strategies They feel so much pressure from factors outside the classroom that push them toward a controlling styleThey feel so much pressure from factors outside the classroom that push them toward a controlling style They feel so much pressure from factors inside the classroom that pull a controlling style out of themThey feel so much pressure from factors inside the classroom that pull a controlling style out of them Autonomy

26 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Your Turn You are a team leader of several teachers in your schoolYou are a team leader of several teachers in your school One of the teachers in your group is having problems with a few of the students, who just don’t seem to want to do wellOne of the teachers in your group is having problems with a few of the students, who just don’t seem to want to do well You notice that the teacher uses controlling behavioursYou notice that the teacher uses controlling behaviours What might you tell the teacher to convince the teacher that student autonomy is important?What might you tell the teacher to convince the teacher that student autonomy is important?

27 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Competence – the psychological need to be effective as one interacts with the surrounding environmentCompetence – the psychological need to be effective as one interacts with the surrounding environment –Easy tasks fail to involve the need for competence –Pleasure greatest following success during moderate (optimal) challenges that fully involve the competence need –Very difficult tasks generate too much anxiety and frustration for students to enjoy them

28 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How Teachers Support Students’ Competence Using the helps support competenceUsing the challenge-feedback sandwich helps support competence –A learning activity that begins with the presentation of an optimal challenge and ends with informational feedback to communicate how well or how poorly one performed – the attitude of a teacher who accepts failure and error-making as a necessary, inherent, and even welcomed part of the learning processFailure tolerance – the attitude of a teacher who accepts failure and error-making as a necessary, inherent, and even welcomed part of the learning process Competence

29 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition – a transient state of concentration in which students become wholly absorbed in an activityFlow – a transient state of concentration in which students become wholly absorbed in an activity –Flow arises when students perceive that the challenges posed by the task match their current skills and competencies –During flow students concentrate, are involved, and enjoy the task Competence

30 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Relatedness – psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other peopleRelatedness – psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people Creating opportunities for students to engage in social interaction will involve their need for relatednessCreating opportunities for students to engage in social interaction will involve their need for relatedness For a relationship to be satisfying, students must perceive that the other personFor a relationship to be satisfying, students must perceive that the other person – –Likes them – –Cares about their welfare – –Accepts and values their true self

31 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Why Supporting Relatedness Is Important Students who feel related to their classmates, their teachers, and their school community are more engaged in learning activitiesStudents who feel related to their classmates, their teachers, and their school community are more engaged in learning activities Relatedness to teachers provides the context to which students will internalize their teachers’ valuesRelatedness to teachers provides the context to which students will internalize their teachers’ values Relatedness

32 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Engagement Model Based on Psychological Need Satisfaction

33 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Motivating Students During Uninteresting Lessons – the teacher needs to take time to provide students with a rationale to explain why the lesson is worth their effort, by connecting the lesson with the student’s future goals and strivingsIncreasing value – the teacher needs to take time to provide students with a rationale to explain why the lesson is worth their effort, by connecting the lesson with the student’s future goals and strivings

34 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Curiosity, Interest, and Positive Effect – a cognitively based emotion that occurs whenever students experience a gap in their knowledge that motivates exploratory behaviour to remove that knowledge gapCuriosity – a cognitively based emotion that occurs whenever students experience a gap in their knowledge that motivates exploratory behaviour to remove that knowledge gap

35 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Sparking Curiosity – the teacher asks students a difficult question, then announces that students’ answers are incorrect so as to reveal a gap in their knowledgeGuessing-and-feedback – the teacher asks students a difficult question, then announces that students’ answers are incorrect so as to reveal a gap in their knowledge – the teacher asks students to predict an outcome before students engage in the work that will reveal that their prediction was right or wrongSuspense – the teacher asks students to predict an outcome before students engage in the work that will reveal that their prediction was right or wrong – the ideas, conclusions, or opinions of one person are incompatible with those of another, and the two attempt to reach agreementControversy – the ideas, conclusions, or opinions of one person are incompatible with those of another, and the two attempt to reach agreement Curiosity, Interest, and Positive Effect

36 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Building Interest is a topic-specific motivational state that arises out of attraction to a particular domain of activityInterest is a topic-specific motivational state that arises out of attraction to a particular domain of activity Building interest:Building interest: – – Triggered by external factors and exists as a short-term attraction to a learning activity. Short-term interest in an activity sparks spontaneous engagement. –Situational interest – Triggered by external factors and exists as a short-term attraction to a learning activity. Short-term interest in an activity sparks spontaneous engagement. – – More stable and content- specific. Creates a clear preference to direct attention and effort toward a particular activity, –Individual interest – More stable and content- specific. Creates a clear preference to direct attention and effort toward a particular activity,

37 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Inducing Positive Affect – the mild, subtle, everyday experience of feeling goodPositive effect – the mild, subtle, everyday experience of feeling good –Induce positive affect through small, unexpected, and pleasant events, e.g., giving students a small gift; providing refreshments; showing a cartoon, giving a “Have a nice day!” card, or just asking students to think about positive events

38 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Using Technology to Promote Engagement Criteria for evaluating technology in terms of its capacity to motivate and engage studentsCriteria for evaluating technology in terms of its capacity to motivate and engage students –=Attention – whether the technology arouses curiosity and interest –A=Attention – whether the technology arouses curiosity and interest –=Relevance – whether the learner perceives the technology to be connected to his or her personal goals –R=Relevance – whether the learner perceives the technology to be connected to his or her personal goals –=Confidence – the extent to which the learner expects to be able to master the material –C=Confidence – the extent to which the learner expects to be able to master the material –=Satisfaction – the learner’s intrinsic motivation and reactions to the rewards embedded in the technology –S=Satisfaction – the learner’s intrinsic motivation and reactions to the rewards embedded in the technology

39 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Anxiety, Self-Worth, Fear of Failure It is important to help students calm anxiety, protect self-worth, and overcome fear of failureIt is important to help students calm anxiety, protect self-worth, and overcome fear of failure – – the unpleasant, aversive emotion that students experience in evaluative settings –Anxiety – the unpleasant, aversive emotion that students experience in evaluative settings –– an evaluation by others of one’s personal worth –Self-worth – an evaluation by others of one’s personal worth – – a defensive self-presentation strategy that involves intentionally interfering with one’s own performance so as to provide a face- saving excuse for failure in case one does indeed fail –Self-handicapping – a defensive self-presentation strategy that involves intentionally interfering with one’s own performance so as to provide a face- saving excuse for failure in case one does indeed fail

40 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Copyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


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