How long can we live without water? Really?! How much do we need per day? Okay… How much do we use? 3-5 days 30 – 50 L 140 – 160 L How long can we live without food? 4-8 weeks Personal Water Usage
Where does it all go? Brushing teeth : Drinking: Cooking: Washing hands and face: Flushing the toilet: Having a power shower/bath: Having a shower: Washing machine: Dish washer: Cleaning car: Watering Garden: Total on average person: 0.01 - 1 L 1 – 2 L 1 – 5 L 1 – 3 L 5 – 10 L 50 – 150 L 1 – 40 L 30 – 100 L 5 – 200 L 1 – 17 L/m 2 140 – 160 L
Water Consumption Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2008) Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's freshwater resources, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
Availability of Water World Resources Institute - PAGE, 2000
Water Scarcity International Water Management Institute
What about Developing Countries? What is a Developing Country? What does “available water” mean to them? What are the constrains posed by water scarcity to people in those countries?
What is a Developing Country? Low standards of democratic governments Low standards of industry Low standards of social welfare and social programs Low standards human rights Weak economy
World Development Map Advanced economies Emerging economies Developing economies Source: IMF
Water Infrastructure in Developing Countries Water Delivery by Water-tank Cars No pipelines to rural areas Anokhee Shah,
Lack of Infrastructure in Developing Countries Groundwater - Well with Pump WaterAId
Walking long distances People have to go to water sources Women and children collect the water In parts of Africa people walk up to 20 km per day to get clean water
Contamination Water can be contaminated by: Micro organisms : Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Metazoa Bacteria: Salmonela (enterobacteria) causes diarrohea Virus: Rotavirus is the leading single cause of severe diarrohea among infants and young children, and is one of several viruses that cause infections commonly known as stomach flu Protozoa: Causes severe diarrohea, epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, diminished interest in food, possible vomiting and weight loss Metazoa: Ascaris Ascariatis – Ingested eggs release larvae which matures to adult worms inside the human host. A female worm can produce up to 200.000 eggs/day. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org
Contamination Dissolved chemicals : Water can be contaminated by: Dissolved chemicals can be toxic, carcinogenic, mutanogenic, corrosive, irritant and may cause irreparable damage to the environment. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nrborderborderentrythreecolorsmay05-1-.JPG Raw sewage and industrial waste
Contamination Contamination brings diseases such as: Typhoid fever Salmonella Cholera These diseases are the biggest cause of mortality in developing countries.
Treatment – Simple Technology Potters for Peace – Ceramic Water Filters Slow sand filtration – Biosand Filter www.biosandfilter.org Potters for Peace
Water Filter Challenge! Demonstrate filter at end. In groups, make a WORKABLE water filter Each group = A Country Follow the instruction sheet Buy supplies
Rules of the Challenge! No cheating! – Not that you would … Only 1 person per group buys at a time. You can ONLY buy in the first 20 minutes. You can talk and deal with other groups.
How does this relate to the real wold? ActivityReal World Money differenceBased on actual country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Illegible instructionsBased on actual country’s illiteracy rate Lack of education and access to information ResourcefulnessPeople in poorer countries have their own ways of coping Countries shareRicher countries may offer “Official Development Assistance” (ODA) to poorer countries Countries form groups like the G8, OECD, or Group of 24 RespectGoes with power.
Challenges … it’s about using the best long-term solution for the problem! It’s not just about giving money and technology… Training – who will fix it? Ownership – Are they going to care if everything is done for them? Is it going to last long?