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DEFENSE OF A DECADE Why the 90s is the best. 1990 S Chad Lowry Katherine McIlhany Shannon Payne Anna Siracusa Amanda Veenhuizen.

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Presentation on theme: "DEFENSE OF A DECADE Why the 90s is the best. 1990 S Chad Lowry Katherine McIlhany Shannon Payne Anna Siracusa Amanda Veenhuizen."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEFENSE OF A DECADE Why the 90s is the best S Chad Lowry Katherine McIlhany Shannon Payne Anna Siracusa Amanda Veenhuizen

2 Introduction The 1990s were a pivotal time in the development of Instructional Design and Technology We will explore the important improvements in technology which gave way to a whole new outlook on what mediums were available for instruction and provided a number of new mediums for non-instructional education. Though the 1990s are often shadowed by technology, we will also show the importance of the Human Performance Improvement Movement and Constructivism, both of which began to take shape in the 90s and remain important concepts today.

3 Human Performance Improvement Movement In the 1990's started to have a major impact Examples of human performance improvement tools today  Webinars  Online Tutorials

4 Human Performance Improvement Movement From (Reiser, 2012 Pg26) In the 1990's HPI started to have a major impact Emphasized on-the-job performance vs. learning Emphasized business results Emphasized non-instructional solutions to performance problems Facilitated the broadening of the scope of LDT Examples of Human Performance Improvement tools used today: Webinars Online tutorials Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) Corporate Culture Changes Job Aids According to Rossett and Gauier-Downes (1991), a Job Aid is a repository for information, processes, or perspectives is external to the individual supports work and activity directs, guides, and enlightens performance.

5 Human Performance Improvement Movement AECT New Definition of LDT (all bullets from Rieser, 2012 pg4) The need for a new definition recognized in 1990 Concise definition published in 1994 Took the field beyond “process” Impact on the field today: Reflected current interest in “constructivist approach” Reflects current interest in a wide variety of instructional techniques

6 Advances in Instructional Media Compared to decades prior and hence, the 1990s saw far more innovation and advancement with instructional media. This is true for both the hardware and software developed at the time. In keeping with Moore’s Law, the desktop computers used by schools and businesses became faster and faster, and capable of storing ever- greater amounts of data (Lehman, slide 47). The CD-ROM drive and CDs also allowed for greater storage capacity compared to the earlier 3.5” floppy disks. The use of computers in schools also accelerated noticeably in the 1990s, with the ratio of students to computers falling from 40:1 in 1985 (Lehman, slide 54) to 9:1 by 1995 (Reiser, 2012). This compares to a ratio of 3:1 today, so the 1990s clearly had much faster rate of adoption in this area than in the time since then.

7 Advances in Instructional Media Microsoft, already a leading operating system for personal computers, saw two significant upgrades in the 1990s. The first was its release of Windows 3.1 in The launch of Windows 95 was an even bigger leap forward, as it adopted the graphical user interface introduced by Apple years earlier, and helped cement Microsoft’s dominance in this domain. (Lehman, slide 25). With regard to software for instructors, the 1990s saw the first instances of authoring systems, which allowed instructors to develop their own courses. (TCET, slide 43). On the software side, Tim Berners-Lee launched the World Wide Web in 1990 (Lehman, slide 25). In 1993, the first web browser (Mosaic) capable of reading HTML was developed by Marc Andreesen. (History of Educational Technology, Texas Center for Educational Technology, slide 16). By the middle of the decade, over ten million web domains existed, and by the end of the decade over 100 million web domains existed. (Lehman, slides 26, 49). By 1999, almost two out of three classrooms had a computer connected to the Internet (Reiser, 2012).

8 Software Advancements in the 1990s World Wide Web launched (1990) Windows 3.1 launched (1991) First browser developed (1993) Netscape launches (1994) Windows 95 (1995) further cements Microsoft’s position in PC market worlds-first-web-browser-turns-20/

9 Hardware Advancements in the 1990s Moore’s Law continues to advance the speed of computers via integrated circuits CD-ROM drives and CDs significantly increase storage capacity for sharing/distributing files First webcam (see following slide) By 1999, almost two out of three classrooms has a computer with an Internet connection /the-evolution-of-apple-design-between /

10 World's First Webcam Improved business – Improved instruction Video conferencing Video broadcasting Video chatting Webcasting Telecommuting Live interviews in the classroom

11 Knowledge Management During the 90's “instructional designers began to discuss the use of computer-based knowledge management systems to support learning and performance” (Reiser, 2012 Pg. 27). From 1998, “Knowledge management is one of the latest management buzzwords.” The concept of knowledge management has arisen because the development of technology has reached a point where this might be possible and financially feasible.” Article citation: Helen Gumbley, (1998) "Knowledge management", Work Study, Vol. 47 Iss: 5, pp.175 – 177. Technological advancements of the 1990's along with the interest in using that technology to capitalize on the knowledge that valued employees have acquired laid the foundation for knowledge management today. This foundation was imperative for knowledge management to meet the demand for information retention in a time when the baby boomer generation is retiring. “By 2030, when all Baby Boomers will have turned 65, fully 18% of the nation’s population will be at least that age, according to Pew Research Center population projections.”Pew Research Center population projections

12 Computer Based Knowledge Management Explored Allows for retention of knowledge in industry  When experienced employees leave the loss of knowledge is minimized  Computer base – makes accessing the information easier

13 Constructivism In the 1990s, there was a shift to constructivism and situated learning Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt developed technology for the constructivist learning based on situated cognition and anchored instruction (Reiser, 2012 Pg. 51) Constructivism emerged at the dominant theoretical perspective and remains the dominant perspective in the 21 st century This theory has more to do with practice and a community participation while the instructor becomes more of a guide Constructivism requires more support, more access to resources and much more detail This type of learning is a good way to match how people really learn because of the direct engagement that leads to more meaningful learning outcomes (Reiser, 2012 Pg. 50).

14 Conclusion In conclusion, the following technological improvements changed the way we look at education and instruction: The Internet Personal computers Software Advances Hardware Advances Webcam Computer based knowledge bases These, along with the developing concepts of Human Performance Improvement Movement and Constructivism, make the 1990s a crucial decade in the field of Instructional Design and Technology.

15 Resources  Reiser, R.A. & Dempsy, J.V. (Eds.). (2012) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3 rd Ed). Boston, MA: Pearson.  Macintosh: [Untitled photograph of a Macintosh Classic Computer]. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from: evolution-of-apple-design-between /http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/01/the- evolution-of-apple-design-between /  En.wikipedia. (2006). CD-R Image, Retrieved August 27, 2013, from: En.wikipedia  Cohn, D., Taylor, P. (2010). “Baby Boomers Approach 65: Glumly.” Retrieved August 27, 2013 from: glumlyhttp://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/12/20/baby-boomers-approach-65- glumly  Helen Gumbley, (1998) "Knowledge management", Work Study, Vol. 47 Iss: 5, pp.175 – 177. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from: 8022&volume=47&issue=5&articleid=851287&show=html&PHPSESSID=t9j6lj9slm b6ck9gbl0bhu37h7#sthash.8RjnrWBZ.dpuf 8022&volume=47&issue=5&articleid=851287&show=html&PHPSESSID=t9j6lj9slm b6ck9gbl0bhu37h7#sthash.8RjnrWBZ.dpuf

16 Resources continued…  [Microsoft Windows Version 3.1 Logo]. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from:  [Netscape Logo]. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from:  [Mosaic Logo]. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from: media.com/news/the-worlds-first-web-browser-turns-20/http://jungle- media.com/news/the-worlds-first-web-browser-turns-20/  [WWW Logo]. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from: htmlhttp://seeklogo.com/www-logo html  Human Performance Technology. (2013). An HPT Quick Reference Guide. Retrieved from:


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