Presentation on theme: "Bio-Oil Components: Bio-Oil Switchgras s Design pyrolysis process to convert switchgrass to bio-oil and upgrade to liquid fuel. Determine factors."— Presentation transcript:
Bio-Oil Components: Bio-Oil Switchgras s
Design pyrolysis process to convert switchgrass to bio-oil and upgrade to liquid fuel. Determine factors that would make process economical.
1. Upgrade bio-oil using hydrotreating process 2. Upgrade bio-oil using catalytic deoxygenation › Consider 5 different scenarios.
“Bench-Scale Fluidized-Bed Pyrolysis of Switchgrass for Bio-Oil Production.” Boateng, et. al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res
Units = Metric Tons/hr Switchgrass 100 Energy Required for the Pyrolysis Process: 81,812 MJ Energy Supplied by Char: 252,000 MJ
Use fluid bed reactor.
Reactor Temperature is 480 °C
Build the plant in Iowa › Centrally located in Midwest › Research currently being done in Iowa regarding switchgrass 20 acres of land for biofuels plant › Cost of land in Iowa is $5140 per acre › Total cost of land for the plant is $102,800
Transportation is $0.10 per ton switchgrass per mile Plant based on 100 tons/hr switchgrass feed Transportation cost is $860 per hr
Reacts hydrogen with bio-oil to remove oxygen. Hydrogen is produced from steam reformer. Steam reformer uses NCG and additional methane as feed.
TCI = $41.5 million Manufacturing Cost = $157.7 million/yr Net Profit first year = -$13.73 million ROI = Equipment Cost(in millions) Pyrolysis unit$1.20 Hydrotreater$5.00 Steam Reformer$0.69 Land (acres)$0.10 Total Equipment Costs $6.99 Direct Costs Purchased equipment$6.99 Purchased-equipment installation$3.29 Instrumentation and controls$2.52 Piping$4.76 Electrical systems$0.77 Buildings$1.26 Yard improvements$0.70 Service facilities$4.89 Total Direct Costs$25.17 Indirect Costs Engineering and supervision$2.31 Construction expenses$2.87 Legal expenses$0.28 Contractor's fee$1.54 Contingency$3.08 Total Indirect Costs$10.07 Fixed Capital Investment$35.24 Working Capital$6.22 Total Capital Investment$41.47
Break even Oil Price: $119/bbl Break even Feed Rate: 165 ton/hr
Raise product price to $119/bbl Increase scale to 500 tons/hr feed Optimized Net Profit: $200 million Optimized ROI: 4.8 Conclusion: Not significant ROI
Not likely to be profitable. › Need to operate at a large scale because of high capital investment. › No significant factor that can be manipulated. › Efficiency of process is not likely to be improved.
Produces mostly aromatic products. Produces an organic and aqueous layer which is easily separable. Stable at high temperatures.
Chemical% wt. fractionOctane # Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene ,3-dimethylbenzene Propylbenzene ,2,4-trimethylbenzene Butylbenzene methylphenol Methyl-4-benzene ,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene Naphthalene6.2Not a component in today’s liquid fuel. Methylnaphthalene9.2 1-ethylnaphthalene3.4 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene6.3 Methylanthracene2.6 Dimethylanthracene0.5 Components found in today’s fuel. High octane numbers. Components NOT found in today’s fuel. Niche market for Naphthalene.
Chemical% wt. fractionBoiling Point ( o F) Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene ,3-dimethylbenzene Propylbenzene ,2,4-trimethylbenzene Butylbenzene methylphenol Methyl-4-benzene ,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene Naphthalene Methylnaphthalene ethylnaphthalene ,3-dimethylnaphthalene Methylanthracene Dimethylanthracene0.5Expected to be above the methylantracene. Can separate components based on boiling points. Can remove Benzene and Toluene if desired.
Units = Metric Tons/hr Total Energy Produced – Total Energy Required = Energy Remaining – = MJ
TCI = $22.91 million Manufacturing Cost = $121 million/yr Net Profit first year = -$3.24 million ROI = Equipment Costs (in millions) Pyrolysis unit$1.20 Cat Reactor$0.67 regenerator$1.63 storage tank$0.04 separator$0.07 land (acres)$0.10 Total Equipment Cost $3.72 Direct Costs Purchased equipment$3.72 Purchased-equipment installation$1.75 Instrumentation and controls$1.34 Piping$2.53 Electrical systems$0.41 Buildings$0.67 Yard improvements$0.37 Service facilities$2.60 Total Direct Costs$13.39 Indirect Costs Engineering and supervision$1.23 Construction expenses$1.52 Legal expenses$0.15 Contractor's fee$0.82 Contingency$1.64 Total Indirect Costs$5.36 Fixed Capital Investment$18.75 Working Capital$3.31 Total Capital Investment$22.06
Break even Oil Price: $110/bbl Break even Feed Rate: 66 tons/hr
Break even Catalyst Price: $996/ton Current Price: $1320/ton We believe that the catalyst price will decrease when produced in bulk.
Scenario 0: original scenario Scenario 1: Decrease amount of catalyst used from 17 g cat/g oil/min to 8.5 g cat/g oil/min Scenario 2: Regenerate catalyst 10 times instead of 2; run on 30 minute cycles instead of hour cycles. Scenario 3: Increase Yield of Product Oil to 23 wt %. Scenario 4: Process is separate from refinery; add separation process and transportation costs
Want to sell oil for cheapest price. Scenarios 1 and 2 are best.
Plant size is similar across all scenarios except 4.
Want to breakeven with highest catalyst price. Scenario 2 is best.
Use Scenario 1 as basis Increase oil price to $110/bbl Increase scale to 500 ton/hr Optimized Net Profit: $170 million Optimized ROI: 7.8 Conclusion: Significant ROI
Scenarios 1 & 2 are most economical. › Scenario 1: Use less catalyst. › Scenario 2: Use catalyst for more cycles. Optimized scenario gives reasonable ROI Should combine process with refinery. Want to increase selectivity of catalyst.
Chemical% wt. fractionOctane # Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene ,3-dimethylbenzene Propylbenzene ,2,4-trimethylbenzene Butylbenzene methylphenol Methyl-4-benzene ,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene Naphthalene6.2Not a component in today’s liquid fuel. Methylnaphthalene9.2 1-ethylnaphthalene3.4 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene6.3 Methylanthracene2.6 Dimethylanthracene0.5 Want to increase selectivity for blue and purple components because they are found in today’s fuel.
Determine how many times can you regenerate the catalyst for a set run time. Determine minimum amount of catalyst that can give a desirable product. Increase selectivity of catalyst for liquid product.
Pursue Catalytic Deoxygenation method For catalyst: › Decrease amount used › Increase selectivity ScenarioTCI (million $) Net Profit (million $) ROI Hydrotreating$41.5-$ Cat. Deox. Original $22.06-$ Cat. Deox. 1$22.06$ Cat. Deox. 2$22.06$ Cat. Deox. 3$22.06$ Cat. Deox. 4$22.06-$
Fluidized Bed Circulating Fluidized BedAblative