Presentation on theme: "به نام خدا. Patients requiring nutritional support 1) PATIENTS WITH SEVERELY IMPAIRED GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION 2) PATIENTS WITH INADEQUATE FOOD INTAKE."— Presentation transcript:
Patients requiring nutritional support 1) PATIENTS WITH SEVERELY IMPAIRED GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION 2) PATIENTS WITH INADEQUATE FOOD INTAKE 3) PATIENTS UNDERGOING MAJOR SURGERY 4) PATIENTS WITH CANCER
This support had 3 main objectives: preserve lean body mass maintain immune function avert metabolic complications
Recently these goals have become more focused on nutrition therapy attempting to attenuate the metabolic response to stress prevent oxidative cellular injury favorably modulate the immune response
Nutritional modulation of the stress response to critical illness includes: Early enteral nutrition appropriate macro- and micronutrient delivery meticulous glycemic control
1970s: TPN - separate CH, AAs and Lipids 1970s: TPN - separate CH, AAs and Lipids 2500-3000kcals/day: Lactic acidosis, high glucose loads, fatty livers, high insulin 2500-3000kcals/day: Lactic acidosis, high glucose loads, fatty livers, high insulin Single lumen C/Lines, no pumps Urinary urea measured, N calculated 1980s: Scientific studies of metabolism: recognition of overfeeding 1980s: Scientific studies of metabolism: recognition of overfeeding 1990s: nitrogen limitation: 0.2g/kg/24hr, start of immunonutrition trials 1990s: nitrogen limitation: 0.2g/kg/24hr, start of immunonutrition trials
2010:ATTENUATE THE METABOLIC RESPONSE TO STRESS 2000s: glucose control, specific nutrients
ICU NUTRITION THROUGH THE AGES Overfeeding 1980s
CPG : clinical practice guidelines; ASPEN: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ESPENESPEN : The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism NICE: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
1)Anthropometrics 2)Clinical Information 3)Nutrition Intake History 4) Biochemical Data THE FOUR BASIC COMPONENTS OF NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT INCLUDE:
I. ANTHROPOMETRICS; The most common anthropometrics used in the hospital setting are : weight (wt), height (ht) weight/height (wt/ht)
Weight: 1)Weight is used to assess a patient’s degree of malnutrition A. Percentage of UBW B. Recent weight change
2)used to consider frame size and muscle mass and to adjust for any edema or excess fluid present. D.Weight Adjustment for Ascites C.Weight Adjustment for Amputation E:Adjusted Body Weight (AdjBW) for Obese Patients
Usual Body Weight The stable body weight of the person during the past 1-6 months
Percentage of UBW = current weight 100 UBW 85-90% = mild malnutrition 75-84% = moderate malnutrition <74% = severe malnutrition
Ali 80 Kg last time you saw his 3 weeks ago Today you visit her and he is75kg Percentage of UBW = current weight 100 UBW Percentage of UBW = 75 100 =93.7 80
To estimate euvolemic weight, determine degree of ascites and subtract the following amount from actual weight. Mild Ascites ~ 3 kg Moderate Ascites ~ 7-8 kg Severe/tense Ascites ~ 14-15 kg These adjustments were approved by UVA hepatologists.
Harris-Benedict equation Miflin St. Jeor (MSJ) Height-Weight- Age
Harris-Benedict equation. BMR in men (kcal/d) = 66 + 13.7 (weight) + 5 (height) - 6.8 (age) BMR in women (kcal/d) = 665 + 9.6 (weight) + 1.8 (height) - 4.7 (age)
Miflin St. Jeor (MSJ) Formulas: BEE – Basal Energy Expenditure Males: BEE= 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 X height (cm) – 5 x age (y) +5 Females: BEE= 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 X height (cm) – 5 x age (y) – 161
Males: 106 # for the first 5 feet of ht plus 6 # for each additional inch (+/- 10%) Females: 100 # for the first 5 feet of ht plus 5 # for each additional inch (+/- 10%) Hamwi Method
Ideal weight can be calculated using the Hamwi equation: Males: 48.1kg for the first 152.4cm of height, + 2.72kg for each additional 2.54cm Females: 45.4kg for the first 152.4cm of height, + 2.27kg for each additional 2.54cm.
Ideal body weight IBW in men (kg) = 50 + 2.3 [height (inches) - 60] IBW in women (kg) = 45.5 + 2.3 [height (inches) - 60]
II. CLINICAL INFORMATION Medical record Physician and other health care professionals Patient or patient family interviews General observations of the patient’s physical appearance Evaluation of psychosocial background
III. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE HISTORY: 24 hour recall 3 day food record
Data collection should include: Food habits Quality and quantity of ingested nutrients Appetite and changes in appetite Food intolerance and allergies Chewing or swallowing problems
Risk factors identified may include: (1) Current anorexia or major changes in appetite within last 3 mo (2) Diet orders that nths are inadequate in meeting patient nutritional requirements NPO or clear liquid >5 days without enteral/parenteral nutrition (3) Problems with chewing, swallowing, (4) Past or present need for enteral or parenteral nutrition
4)BIOCHEMICAL DATA ASSOCIATED WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS : Although these lab values are helpful in the assessment of nutritional status, they should be used in combination with other clinical data
TUN is preferred UUN is used to estimate nitrogen balance, it does take into account 2 g for the dermal and fecal losses of nitrogen and 2 g for the non-urea components of the urine (e.g. ammonia, uric acid, and creatinine). the unmeasured nitrogen losses from burns, fistulas and drainage devices need to be considered and used in the interpretation of a nitrogen balance.
24 hr. protein intake – TUN (gm) + 2 gm 6.25 +4 to + 6: Net anabolism +1 to - 1: Homeostasis -2 to – 1: Net catabolism
Potential causes Potential causes for for high values low values Growth Pregnancy Athletic training Recovery from illness Inadequate calorie or protein intake increased catabolism Trauma Surgery Poor quality protein intake Critical Illness
24 hr. protein intake –UUN (gm) + 4 gm] 6.25 +4 to + 6: Net anabolism +1 to - 1: Homeostasis -2 to – 1: Net catabolism
Potential causes Potential causes for for high values low values Growth Pregnancy Athletic training Recovery from illness Inadequate calorie or protein intake increased catabolism Trauma Surgery Poor quality protein intake
Hepatic Proteins Albumin, Prealbumin and Transferrin are not listed in the previous section as research has shown that these hepatic proteins are not reliable indicators of nutritional status and are negative acute phase reactants.
Albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin should not be used as indicators of nutritional status in hospitalized patients due to the effects of stress and inflammation on these parameters.
REFEEDING SYNDROME Refeeding syndrome is a complication of nutrition repletion that can cause morbidity and mortality in the malnourished patient
Complications: Electrolyte abnormalities low serum values of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium Glucose and fluid shifts cardiac dysfunction Impaired release of oxygen from oxy-hemoglobin
Nutrition support in patients at high risk of refeeding syndrome Start nutrition support at ≤10 kcal/kg/day, increase levels slowly to meet or exceed full requirements by day 4 to 7 (consider 5 kcal/kg/day in extreme cases, eg. anorexia nervosa patients). Restore circulatory volume and monitor fluid balance and overall clinical status closely.
Providing immediately before and during the first 10 days of feeding: oral thiamine 200–300 mg daily, Give a balanced multivitamin/trace element supplement once daily. Provide oral, enteral or intravenous supplements of potassium, phosphate and magnesium
ADULT : NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS number of factors including: Age Activity level Current nutritional status Current metabolic and disease states
Calorie Requirements : CALORIE REQUIREMENTS IN MOST HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS
Basal energy expenditure (BEE) —also called basal metabolic rate (BMR) awakening from a 12-hour fast measured in a thermoneutral environment (25°C). After a meal, energy expenditure may increase 5% to 10%.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) —the energy expenditure while resting in the supine position with eyes open Includes the thermogenic effect of food if performed within a few hours of a meal or during continuous infusions of nutrients such as during continuous TPN administration. About 10% greater than BEE
Sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) It is usually 10% to 15% lower than REE Activity energy expenditure (AEE) During maximum exercise it can be 6- to 10-fold greater than the BEE.
Fever— Fever increases metabolic rate 10% per °C (or 7% per °F).
Total energy expenditure (TEE) the sum of energy expended during periods of sleep, resting, and activity.
eREE = eBEE stress factor eTEE = eREE activity factor estimated total energy expenditure estimated resting energy expenditure;
Stress Factors Major surgery: 15%-25% Infection: 20% Long bone fracture: 20%-35% Malnutrition: Subtract 10%-15% Burns: Up to 120% depending on extent Sepsis: 30%-55% Major trauma: 20%-35% COPD: 10%-15% Sedated mechanically ventilated patients: Subtract 10%-15%.
KCAL/Kg – Not likely valid if BMI >30 (consider using Ideal body weight or adjusted BW) Wound Healing: 30-35 kcal/kg, increase to 35-40 kcal/kg if the pt is underweight or losing weight. Sepsis and Infection: 20-30 kcal/kg Trauma: 25-30 kcal/kg Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) 23kcal/kg or HBE w/o stress factor Chronic SCI: 20-23kcal/kg depending on activity Stroke: 19-20kcal/kg or (HBE x.95-1.15) COPD: 25-30 kcal/kg University of Kentucky Medical Center
ARF: 25-35 kcal/kg Hepatitis: 25-35 kcal/kg if well-nourished 30kcal/kg), 30-40 kcal/kg if malnourished Cirrhosis without encephalopathy: 25-35 kcal/kg Cirrhosis with encephalopathy: 35 kcal/kg Severe Acute Pancreatitis: 35 kcal/kg
Organ Transplant: 30-35 kcal/kg Cancer: Sedentary/normal wt = 25-30 kcal. Hypermetabolic, need to gain weight, or anabolic = 30-35 kcal/kg. Hypermetabolic, malabsorption, severe stress: > 35 kcal/kg. Obese = 21-25 kcal/kg
BMI : >35, the goal of the EN regimen should not exceed 60% to 70% of target energy requirements or 11–14 kcal/kg actual body weight/day (or 22–25 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day ).
Major Elective 1.2 - 1.3 Major Non-elective 1.3 - 1.5 Minor Elective 1.2 Minor Non-elective 1.2 - 1.3 Infection w/temp 1.2 - 1.3 Burns: 10% TBSA - 1.2, 20%TBSA - 1.5, 30% TBSA 1.7, 40% TBA - 1.8, >50% TBSA 2.0 Estimated Calorie Needs: HBE or MSJ x Injury factor
Traumatic Brain Injury (CHI) HBE x 1.4 Multiple trauma & CHI HBE x 1.4 – 1.6 Pentobarbital coma HBE x 1.0 – 1.2 Stroke and SAH HBE x 1.0- 1.2 Pneumonia (or ARDS) HBE x 1.2 - 1.3 Neuromuscular Blockade HBE x 1
Weir Formula: Kcal/day = (3.94 x VO2L/d)+(1.11 x VCO2L/d)-(2.17gm urine N2/d): VO2 = oxygen consumed, VCO2 = carbon dioxide produced
Metabolic cart (28, 29): Indirect calorimetry using a “metabolic cart” measures actual energy expenditure by collecting, measuring and analyzing the oxygen consumed (VO2) and the carbon dioxide (VCO2) expired. From these measurements the respiratory quotient (RQ) is calculated
Immunonutrition: An additional strategy to maximize the benefits of EN is to use formulas supplemented with specific nutrients. modulate the immune system facilitate wound healing reduce oxidative stress
L-ARGININE plays fundamental roles in protein metabolism polyamine synthesis critical substrate for nitricoxide (NO) production
stimulates the release ; growth hormone insulin growth factor and insulin all of which may stimulate protein synthesis and promote wound healing. The enzyme, l-arginase, metabolizes l-arginine to l-ornithine, an amino acid implicated in wound healing.
Guidelines for arginine supplementation can be summarized as follows: Higher than normal (supraphysiologic) l-arginine supplementation is necessary . Normal l-arginine intake is 3 to 5 g/d.
Dietary supplementation with l-arginine alone should not be used, as only diets Immunonutrition incorporating supraphysiologic quantities Of l-arginine ideally should be started preoperatively as an oral dietary supplement and continued in the postoperative
A clear benefit of l-arginine-containing immunonutrition has not been observed in medical patients, particularly those with sepsis. All elective surgical patient populations, including patients undergoing operations for head and neck cancer and patients undergoing cardiac or GI surgery, appear to benefit from the useof immunonutrition formulas containing l-arginine.
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS incorporated into phospholipids and thereby influence the structure and function of cellular membranes. as substrates for the enzymes cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 oxidase increasing the quantity of omega-3 fatty acids (found in fish oils) in the diet reduces platelet aggregation, slows blood clotting, and limits the production of proinflammatory cytokines..
administration of dietary lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids can modify the lipid profile and favorably affect clinical outcome a mong critically ill patients with ARDS
L-GLUTAMINE: The amino acid, l-glutamine, plays a central role in nitrogen transport within the body. used as a fuel by rapidly dividing cells, particularly lymphocytes and gut epithelial cells. substrate for synthesis of the important endogenous antioxidant translocation of enteric bacteria and endotoxins is reduced and infective complications less frequent.
l-Glutamine unfortunately is unstable in aqueous solutions. To overcome this problem, l-glutamine is added to TPN solutions as adipeptide (l-alanyl-l-glutamine). In patients receiving EN, l-glutamine powder can be dissolved into the nutrition formulation.
* Normal state: reduction > oxidation * Acute stress: injury/sepsis causes acute dysregulation * Mitochondria are both sources and targets * Observational studies: anti-oxidant capacity inversely correlated with disease severity due to depletion during oxidative stress
including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reductase (with zinc and selenium as co-factors), aswell as sulphydryl donors (glutathione) and vitamins E and C.
Positive actions: * Bactericidal * Regulation of vascular tone But mostly detrimental: Cell injury (ischaemia /reperfusion) * DNA, Lipids, Proteins Organ dysfunction * Lungs, Heart, Kidney Liver, Blood, Brain
Selenium; is an essential component of the most important extra- and intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme family, the glutathione peroxidases (GPX). doses of 750–1000 mcg/day should probably not be exceeded in the critically ill, and aministration of supraphysiological ddoses should perhaps be administratlimited to 2 weeks. 20-60 mcg
Ascorbic acid (C) 200 mg Vitamin A 3300 IU Vitamin D 5 mg Vitamin E 10 IU Recommended Daily Intake
Use of these products has been called immunonutrition
Which Nutrient for Which Population? Elective Surgery Critically Ill GeneralSepticTraumaBurns Acute Lung Injury Arginine Benefit No benefit Harm(?) (Possible benefit) No benefit GlutaminePossible Benefit PN Beneficial Recom- mend … EN Possibly Beneficial: Consider EN Possibly Beneficial: Consider … Omega 3 FFA …………… Recom- mend Anti- oxidants … Consider ………… Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines
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