Presentation on theme: "The Conservative Revolution. NIXON’S PRESIDENCY 1968 Democratic split opened door for Nixon Counterculture, civil rights movement, and war movements led."— Presentation transcript:
NIXON’S PRESIDENCY 1968 Democratic split opened door for Nixon Counterculture, civil rights movement, and war movements led many Americans to seek a ‘return to normalcy’ Nixon elected with 43.4% of popular vote Nixon Doctrine Anticommunist Dollar Diplomacy Silent Majority Speech Nixon felt he defended the Silent Majority (not the loud radicals)
Vietnamization Military personnel in Vietnam 1968:536,000 1970:334,600 1972:24,200 1973:less than 250 Pentagon Papers (1971) Peace agreement signed in Paris in 1973 Senate rejects aid to South Vietnam in 1975 (it falls shortly after)
Détente Nixon makes historic visit to China USSR & U.S. sign SALT I Kissinger works with Middle East
Watergate Committee to Reelect the President orders break-in Cover-up begins Following re-election, Nixon orders CIA to obstruct investigation by FBI Woodward & Bernstein uncover truth
Watergate Nixon loses Supreme Court case Nixon, avoiding impending impeachment & conviction, resigns in disgrace
Economic Recession (1974-1982) Withdrawal in Vietnam Arab Oil Embargo & OPEC Rising Unemployment Inflation v. Stagflation
Caretaker Presidency of Gerald Ford Pardon of Nixon Economic recession Lost 1976 election Popular vote: 49.9% to 47.9% Electoral vote: 297 to 240
“Outsider to Insider” Jimmy Carter Camp David Accords Recession continues (second energy crisis) Soviets invade Afghanistan SALT II dies U.S. boycotts 1980 Summer Olympics
Jimmy Carter Iran Hostage Crisis Angry allowance of the shah into the U.S., Shiite protesters raided the embassy, taking 50 American hostages Following an embarrassing failed rescue attempt, Sec. of State Vance resigned. The 444- day standoff ended on Reagan’s inauguration day.
The Reagan Revolution “Are you better off today than you were four years ago?” Attack on New Deal, Fair Deal, Great Society Cut income taxes & government Increased defense spending
March 30, 1981 Reagan’s attempted assassination. 4 wounded, but Reagan became the only American president to survive an assassin’s bullet. It missed his heart by ¼ inch. Reagan firmly believed his life had been spared by God.
Reagan Revolution Reaganomics Supply-side economics The Great Bull Market
Reagan Rebuilds the Military Vietnam Syndrome “Vietnam Syndrome” --the fear of another war like Vietnam leads to the public desire to avoid foreign affairs Reagan felt Carter and the Democrats were so afraid of a repeat of Vietnam they were oblivious to the USSR’s growing military power in the world Negotiate with the USSR from a ‘position of strength’ Reagan Doctrine Reagan Doctrine rolls back the Brezhnev Doctrine B-1 Bomber Stealth planes F-15 Fighter Nuclear submarines New Aircraft Carriers MX Peacekeeper Missile Tesla’s SDI Initiative Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) created the original Internet Silicon Valley flourisheseffects 1.Tripled national debt 2.Surpassed USSR militarily 3.Triggered innovations of 1990s and beyond 4.Bankrupted USS R
The Space Race “SDI “SDI is a policy that could end Moscow's ability to intimidate and blackmail the U.S. and the rest of the world.”—Hoover Institute
The Reagan Revolution & winning the Cold War Evil Empire speech INF Treaty
Reagan Fires the Air Traffic Controllers Under Taft-Hartley Act (1947), government workers were not allowed to strike In August 1981, PATCO called for a strike Reagan called it a challenge to national security Reagan fired 11,325 of the 13,000 air traffic controllers in the U.S. and banned them from service for life A defining moment of labor relations in U.S. history “They are in violation of the law and if they do not report for work within 48 hours they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated.”
Big Stick Diplomacy returns Grenada (Oct. 25, 1983) 7,600 Marines overthrow communist government Condemned by UK, Cuba, and UN General Assembly The United Nations voted 108-9 to condemn U.S. action --Reagan’s response: “it didn’t upset my breakfast at all.”
The reason for the invasion was to protect American medical students at St. George University. Today, Grenadians celebrate a national holiday in tribute to the invasion in November.
Reagan Orders the Bombing of Libya Response to Libyan terrorist activities Border dispute with Libya over Gulf of Sidra 18 F-111A warplanes flown to kill Gaddafi 60 Libyan casualties (including one infant), 2 U.S. 1989: Gulf of Sidra Incident 2002 agreement with U.S. (Bush) “If necessary [we] shall do it again.”—Reagan (Apr. 1986)
Hispanic Timeline 1880s—Mass Mexican migration to build SW RR 1910-1920—Mexican Revolution causes mass immigration to find work and safety 1917—Jones Act (grants US Citizenship to Puerto Ricans 1929—Mass deportations (some US citizens) as labor surplus causes economic slowdown 1932—Benjamin Cardozo becomes first Hispanic named to US Supreme Court 1942—Bracero Program begins (ends in 1964) 1943—Zoot Suit Riots (10 days) 1945—Mendez v. Westminster (CA school segregation case) 1953-1958—Operation Wetback deports over 3.8 million Latin Americans (over 1 million Mexicans) 1965—Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta found UFW 1965—Immigration Act of 1965 (removed race quotas) 1974—Equal Educational Opportunity Act passed to allow more bilingual ed 1986—Immigration Reform and Control Act (amnesty to millions of illegal aliens) 1988—Reagan appoints Dr. Lauro Cavazos (first Latino in presidential cabinet) 1994-1997—Prop 187 debate over services for illegal immigrants 1994-2013—NAFTA and Mexican economic collapse leads to immigration of 13 million undocumented workers 2003—Hispanics become dominant minority in USA
American Immigration HistoryColonial Approximately half million immigrants came to America during period Mostly Western European (African exception) indentured servants Over half were indentured servants 1790 Act gave “free white persons” naturalization mid-19 th Century Increased immigration began in 1836 Irish immigrated 1820-1860 Two million Irish immigrated (1.5 M during Potato Famine) Six times more Irish live in USA than Ireland Know- nothings 1840s American party (Know- nothings) established 14 th Amendment 14 th Amendment granted freedmen citizenship Page Act of 1875 (“undesirables”) Chinese Exclusion Act Chinese Exclusion Act early 20 th Century 1836-1914 saw over 30 million Europeans immigrate to USA Peaked in 1907 with 1,285,349 immigrants Immigration Act of 1924 Immigration Act of 1924 sought to restrict Southern and Eastern Europeans Immigration declined until 1965 post-1965 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act ended race quotas established in 1920s legislation (immigration doubled between 1965-1970 and doubled again between 1970-1990 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (amnesty) 1994 NAFTA and Mexican economic collapse More immigrants entered USA from 2000-2005 than any other time in American history USA averages 1.1 million legal immigrants per year since 2000
Immigration Reform and Control Act required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status. made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit unauthorized immigrants. granted amnesty to certain seasonal agricultural illegal immigrants. amnesty granted amnesty to illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuously.
The Reagan Revolution Iran Contra Affair another Watergate?
Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998) Radical to Conservative 1966 – joined Black Panther Party 1968 – ran for president as third-party candidate 1968 – originally supposed to attend Democratic National Convention protest but exiled to Algeria 1970 – fell out with Huey Newton and left Panthers 1975 – returned to the United States and abandoned radical past, receiving probation for past acts 1983 – joined Mormon church and became staunch conservative until his death in 1998 Souls on Ice became scripture for the Black Power movement
Bush 41 Presidency End of Cold War “read my lips, no new taxes!!” Persian Gulf War Economic recession
The New Democrat Bill Clinton NAFTA The balanced budget 1992 election results Clinton 43.3% (370) Bush 37.7% (168) Perot 19.0% (0)
The North American Free Trade Agreement was bitterly debated in the U.S. as the capitalists and protectionists fought over its merits
The Clinton Presidency Aftermath of Cold War & Persian Gulf War Eastern Europe (Kosovo, Bosnia, Chechnya) Africa (Somalia, Rwanda) 1993 World Trade Center bombing, OK City bombing 1994 Midterm elections (Welfare & Healthcare Reform) Scandals
Bush 43 Debated election Bush 47.9% (271) Gore 48.4% (266) 9/11 Afghanistan, War on Terror, Iraqi War
Obama 44-Return to New Deal Progressivism 2006 – Democrats took control of Congress for first time since 1995 2008 – Democrats increased majority in Senate to 60% and 59% in House 2010 – Democrats lost dominant majority in Senate (53%) and had worst House election since 1890s (lost 62 seats) 2012 – Obama wins re- election and Congress remains split