3Instructor Introduction Jorge PierrottMobile: (775)Please text me for emergency only
4Chapter ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions:What is crime? What is the definition of crime that the author of this textbook has chosen to use?What is deviance? How are crime and deviance similar? How do they differ?Who decides what should be criminal? How are such decisions made?What is the theme of this book? Upon what two contrasting viewpoints does it build?What does it mean to say that “criminal activity is diversely created and variously interpreted”?
5Introduction Crime-related entertainment extremely popular today. Inexplicability of crime fascinates people.This text examines causative factors in effect when a crime is committed.It encourages an appreciation of the challenges of crafting effective crime-control policy.
6What are your favorites? 22. Orange is the New Black – Prison Drama 21. Luther – Crime Drama 15. Homeland – Crime/Terrorist Drama 14. Walking Dead – Violent Drama 13. American Horror Story – Horror/Crime Drama 12. Top of the Lake – Mystery/Crime Drama 8. Boardwalk Empire – Crime Drama 7. Archer – Crime/Spy/Comedy 5. The Americans – Crime/Spy Drama 4. Game of Thrones – Fantasy/Crime/Violent Drama 3. Justified – Crime Drama 2. Hannibal – Crime Drama 1. Breaking Bad – Crime DramaList drafted by: Slant Magazine
7Impact of the Media on Crime What are the typical images on crime?How are they distorted by the media?What types of crimes are normally featured?How “real” are reality TV shows?Do you believe crime related shows and information leave viewers with a mistaken impression of law enforcement?
8Activity 1 Gather up in your assign groups and discuss the following: Discuss TV shows such as Cops, NCIS, Blue Bloods, Breaking Bad and provide the following information:What is commonly the gender and race of the suspects?The gender and race of the police officers?The type of crime?The products being advertised during these programs.
9What is Crime? Four definitional perspectives Legalistic Political SociologicalPsychologicalcontinued on next slide
10What is Crime?Perspective is important because it determines the assumptions we make and the questions we askThis book uses the legalistic perspectivePerspective:Under this definition, immoral forms of behavior that are not contravened by state statute are not recognized as crimes.
11Legalistic Perspective Crime:Human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such lawscontinued on next slide
12Legalistic Perspective Key shortcomingYields moral high ground to powerful individuals who can influence lawmakingLaws are social products – crime is socially relative, created by legislative activity
13Political Perspective Crime:The result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups and are then used to label selected undesirable forms of behavior as illegalLaws serve the interests of the politically powerfulCrimes are behaviors those in power perceive as threats to their interests
14Sociological (Sociolegal) Perspective Crime:An antisocial act of such a nature that its repression is necessary or is supposed to be necessary to the preservation of the existing system of societyCrime is an offense against human relationships first, a violation of law second
15Psychological (Maladaptive) Perspective Crime:Problem behavior, especially human activity that contravenes the criminal law and results in difficulties in living within a framework of generally acceptable social arrangementsAny behavior which is maladaptive would be considered crimeIncludes any harmful or potentially harmful behaviors
16Crime and Deviance Deviant behavior Human activity that violates social normsDeviance and crime overlap – not identicalDelinquency: Violations of the criminal law and other misbehavior committed by young peopleWho here thinks themselves a deviant?Some forms of deviance are not violations of the criminal law and the reverse is equally true.Some years ago, for example, a judge in Palm Beach County, Florida, held that a city ordinance barring wearing baggy pants was unconstitutional. He referred to them as “tacky and distasteful”.In San Francisco, a 2012 vote made public nudity in the city illegal. This after people were walking the Castro District nude and in coffee shops.Speeding – Who here speeds?
17Illegal in certain areas and not others. Figure The Overlap between Deviance and Crime Source: Schmalleger, Frank J., Criminology. Printed and Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.Illegal in certain areas and not others.What are some examples of this being the case?Gambling here in NevadaProstitutionWhat’s illegal for some may be illegal for others.DrinkingSmoking
18What Should Be Criminal? Lack agreement about appropriate legal status of behaviors such as drug use, abortion, gambling, etc.Question answered differently by two contrasting perspectivesConsensusPluralistWhat can we agree on? What should be criminal?MurderRapeBurglaryTheftViolent crimes
19Activity #2Make a list of five legal behaviors, which you consider deviant.Compare and contrast the items on your lists. Focus on the wide range of opinions present among a fairly homogenous group (university students studying criminal justice). Discuss possible reasons for differing opinions (e.g., religious beliefs, profession, prior experiences with the criminal justice system).
20What Should Be Criminal? ConsensusPluralistLaws enacted to criminalize behaviors when members of society agreeHomogeneous societiesShared consensus hard to achieve in diverse multicultural societiesBehaviors criminalized through a political process, after debate over appropriate course of actionInvolves legislation, appellate court actionMost applicable to diverse societiesHomogeneous societies - A homogenous society is a society where most of the community members share the same culture, language, ethnicity and religious beliefs. The most prominent homogenous societies are grouped according to ethnicity; thus people with the same skin complexion are found in the same locality. Some homogenous societies are made of people with the same financial background.Is this an easy thing to achieve here in the U.S.? Why or why not?Consensus example:Alexa – taken into custody for doodling on her junior high school desk. She was charged with defacing school property and forced to spend several hours in custody. She was ordered to perform 8 hours of community service and to write an essay on what she had learned from the experience.Pluralist example:After the tragic shootings that occurred around the nation and in the Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012, legislatures and federal officials reexamined gun laws to see if new laws were needed to keep guns out of the hands of potential mass killers.
21What Is Criminology? Wide variety of definitions available Text definition of criminology:An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their manifestations, causes, legal aspects, and controlIncludes consideration of possible solutions to crime problemOlogy – the study of somethingCrime – comes from the Latin meaning “accusation”, “charge” or “guilt”.Criminology literally means – the study of criminal accusations.
22Criminology’s Basic Questions Why do crime rates vary?Why do individuals differ as to criminality?Why is there variation in reactions to crime?What are the possible means of controlling criminality?
23What Is Criminology? Criminology is interdisciplinary Criminology needs to be integratedCriminology contributes to criminal justice:Application of the criminal law and study of the components of the justice systemPolice, courts, correctionsFocus on control of law-breakingWhy does criminology need to be integrated?Wide range of subjects, criminal activity and unpredictability of crime.A successfully integrated field of criminology must bring together the contributions of various theoretical perspectives and disciplines, but it must also, if it is to have any relevance blend the practical requirements of our nation’s judicial system with emotional and rational class for morality and justice.Is the death penalty justified?Is it vengeance and therefore deserved?Or is it unjustified because statistics have show that it does little to reduce crime?
24What Do Criminologists Do? Studies crime, criminals and criminal behaviorCriminalistA specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crimeCriminologistSpecialty skilled investigatorsCrime lab techsFingerprint expertsCrime scene photographersBallistic expertsCriminalistsPolice officersCorrections professionalsProbation and parole officersJudgesDistrict Attorneyscontinued on next slide
25What Do Criminologists Do? Criminal Justice ProfessionalsDo the day-to-day work of the criminal justice systemcontinued on next slide
26What Do Criminologists Do? Academic criminologistsOther career tracksPh.D. in criminology, CJ, related fieldTeach in universitiesConduct research to advance criminological knowledgePublish in journalsWork in CJSPrivate security or private investigationLaw schoolWork for legislative bodies, provide expertise to civil organizationsResearches work in places such as:The National Institute of JusticeThe Bureau of Justice StatisticsThe National Criminal Justice Reference ServiceOr they work for private agencies to perform research on criminal justice related topics.
27Theoretical Criminology Subfield of general criminology mainly found in colleges and universitiesAssume explanations for criminal behaviorTheoretical Criminology rather than simply describing crime and its occurrence, pose explanations for criminal behavior.continued on next slide
28Theoretical Criminology Theory:Made up of clearly stated propositions that affirm or assume relationships between events and things under studyCriminologists have developed many theories to explain and understand crimecontinued on next slide
29Theoretical Criminology General theoryTries to explain all/most forms of crime through a single overarching approachUnicausal theoryAssumes a single identifiable source for all serious deviant and criminal behaviorIntegrated theoryTries to explain crime by merging concepts from different sourcesGeneral theory – Ask the class –Would this theory truly be an effective method to explaining crime?Why or why not?“It’s not because theories in criminology tend to be unclear and lacking in justifiable generality”There is a wide range of behaviors regarded as criminals from:MurderDrug useWhite collar crimeCybercrime
30Criminology and Social Policy Translational criminologyFocuses on translating research results into workable social policySound social policy needs to be linked to objective findings of well-conducted criminological researchThe idea is to prevent, reduce and manage crime through scientific discoveries into policy and practice.Question:Who believes that video games, violent movies and violent TV shows make children more violent?
31The Theme of This Text Social Problems Social Responsibility Crime a manifestation of underlying social problemsPublic health model to deal with crimeMacro approachPeople responsible for own behavior, choose crime over legitimate optionsPersonalized crime-reduction strategiesMicro approachWhat are some of these social problems?PovertyDiscriminationInequality of opportunityBreakdown of traditional social institutionsLow level of formal educationPervasive family violence experience by some during formative yearsInadequate socialization practicesSocial ResponsibilityPersonalized crime reduction strategiesBased on firm punishmentsImprisonmentIndividualized rehabilitation andIncreased security as well as a wider use of police powersMicro approachFocuses on individual offenders and their unique biology, psychology, background and immediate life experiences.Examples include:The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994Increased the number of police officers on the street nationally by 100,000Created boot campsCreated the 3 strikes and your out lawThe Patriot Act of 2001Targets terrorism and crimes committed in support of terrorist activity
32The Social Context of Crime Crime does not occur in a vacuum – every crime has a unique set ofCausesConsequencesParticipantsCrime provokes reactions from many sourcesReactions to crime may affect future criminal eventsCrime provokes reactions from many sources which include:Its victimsConcerned groups of citizensSociety as a wholeCreates social policyReactions to crime may affect future criminal events – What does this mean?Police being better equipped in the future.Changes to policies may be made to increase effectiveness.Planning for situations may lead to more staffing levels and funding.
34The Causes and Consequences of the Criminal Event Crime is a social event, not an isolated individual activityCrime is socially relativeCrime does not only affect the individual it affects the rest of society. This occurs when social interests groups, victims, advocates, gun control organizations, and prisoner rights organizations.Social relativity means that social events are interpreted differently according to the cultural experiences and personal interests of the initiator, the observer, or the recipient of that behavior.Ask the class for an example.continued on next slide
35The Causes and Consequences of the Criminal Event Crime results from the coming together of inputs provided by the offender, the victim, the criminal justice system, and societyForeground – features that immediately determine the nature of the crimeBackground causes – generic contributions to the crime
36Crime and the Offender Background Foreground Life experiences Biology/genetic inventoryPersonalityValues/beliefsSkills/knowledgeMotivationSpecific intentState of mind (drug-induced)
37Crime and the Criminal Justice System BackgroundForegroundCJS contributes to crime through failure to:Prevent crimeIdentify/inhibit specific offendersPrevent release of recidivistsProper system response may reduce crimePresence/absence of police officersAvailability of official assistanceWillingness of officers to intervene pre-crimeResponse time
38Crime and the Victim Background Foreground Passive presence Active contributions through lifestyleVictim precipitationActive victim participation in initial stages of criminal eventVictim instigates chain of events resulting in victimization
39Crime and Society Background Foreground Legislation defining crime Generic social practices and conditionsSocialization processDistribution of resourcesAccessibility of services
40The Consequences of Crime Outputs/immediate consequences affect those parties directly involvedReal impact mediated by perceptual filtersResults in ongoing interpretations before, during, after crimeEveryone associated with a crime engages in interpretations
41Integrative Approach to Crime Text takes 3-D integrative view of crimeTry to identify, understand causes of crimeHighlight processes involved in the criminal eventAnalyze interpretation of the crime phenomenoncontinued on next slide
42Integrative Approach to Crime Crime seen as emergent activity thatArises out of past complex causesAssumes a course building on immediate interrelationshipsElicits formal response from CJS, shapes public perceptions, may lead to changes in social policy
43The Primacy of Sociology? Many disciplines have made important contributions to criminologyMany criminologists today operate primarily from a sociological perspectiveMany modern theories of criminal behavior based in sociologycontinued on next slide
44The Primacy of Sociology? New and emerging perspectives being recognized, but sociological perspective dominates