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Happy New Year! PLEASE PICK UP THE MATERIALS IN THE FRONT AND TAKE A SEAT

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How was my break?

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Policies and Procedures - Test Corrections - Pink Sheets & Late Work - Notes & Practice Problems

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Chapter 8 BEAT Sheet Calculate the percent composition of any element in a compound Determine the empirical formula of a compound given its percent composition Determine the molecular formula of a compound given its percent composition and molar mass Determine the empirical formula of a hydrate from lab data Perform mole road calculations to determine atoms, molecules, ions, mass, or moles from relevant data Describe the labs you performed this unit and what the key concept/learning was from each lab

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What is a mole? We have talked about this 6.02 X times!

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What is a mole? A mole is the base unit used to measure the amount of a substance, abbreviated mol. One mol of anything is equal to 6.02 x pieces of that thing.

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Mole Practice 1. How many moles in 5.4 x atoms of Pb?

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Mole Practice 2. How many atoms in 3.5 moles of Ag?

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Mole Practice 3. How many total molecules in 1 mole of glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 ?

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Molecular and Formula Weight Last semester we learned about molecular weight and touched on formula weight. It is important to remember that a single atom’s weight in amu is the same as one mole of that atom in grams. Example: The weight of a single atom of aluminum is grams. Therefore 1 mol of Al weighs grams.

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Molecular and Formula Weight This is known as the atomic mass: the mass of 1 mole of atoms of any element. This is the number that’s on the periodic table. But atoms are rarely by themselves—they are usually in compounds. How do you find the mass of a mole of a compound??

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Molecular and Formula Weight Example: Find the molecular mass of CO 2 ◦C:1 x = g ◦O:2 x = g g

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Molecular and Formula Weight Example: Find the formula mass of (NH 4 )CO 3 ◦N:1 x = g ◦H:4 x = g ◦C:1 x = g ◦O:3 x = g g

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Molecular and Formula Weight Practice Problems 4. Find the molecular mass of C 6 H 12 O 6

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Molecular and Formula Weight Practice Problems 5. Find the molecular mass of dinitrogen pentaoxide

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Molecular and Formula Weight Practice Problems 6. Find the Formula mass of Na 2 SO 4

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Molecular and Formula Weight Practice Problems 7. Find the Formula mass of potassium phosphate

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Molar Mass of a Substance When trying to find the mass of one mole of a substance we will make life easier by just referring to the molar mass of a material. It can be an atom, a molecule, or an ionic compound. We use the same technique to calculate the mass of a mole of O 2, Pb, CH 4, or NaCl.

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Molar Mass Practice Problems 8. Find the molar mass of O 2

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Molar Mass Practice Problems 9. Find the molar mass of Pb

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Molar Mass Practice Problems 10. Find the molar mass of CH 4

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Molar Mass Practice Problems 11. Find the molar mass of NaCl

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Molar Mass Practice Problems 12. When do you use atomic mass, molecular weight, and formula weight to find the molar mass?

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Molar Mass Conversion Since molar mass gives you the amount of grams in one mole of a substance you can use the molar mass to convert from grams to moles or vice versa.

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Molar Mass Conversion

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Molar Mass Conversion Practice Problems 13. How many moles are in g of HNO 3

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Molar Mass Conversion Practice Problems 14. How many moles are in 19.5 grams of NaCl

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Molar Mass Conversion Practice Problems 15. How many grams are in 15 mols of AlPO 4

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Molar Mass Conversion Practice Problems 16. How many grams are in 5.34 mols of KBr

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Until this point we have only converted from mass to moles, but what happens when we convert from volume to moles? Describe how we can measure the mass of a solid substance: Describe how we can measure the mass of a liquid substance: Can we measure the mass of a gaseous substance?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas When we convert from volume to moles or moles to volume we use a constant of 22.4 liters per mole. This constant tells us that one mole of a gas has a volume of 22.4 liters. When using this constant we assume the gas is at STP (standard temperature and pressure) which is 1 atm and 0 C

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Also remember that if there is one mole of a sample of gas, that sample must have 6.02 x atoms in it! But since gases have different masses than their solid form, one mole of a gas does not weigh the same as its solid state!

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas

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Example: What is the density of F 2 at STP?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Practice Problems 17. Since we know that the gaseous state of a substance does not have the same mass as the solid state of the same substance, what can we say about the density of the two?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Practice Problems 18. How many moles are in 22.4 Liters of O (gas) ?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Practice Problems 19. How many milliliters of Neon gas are in 2 mols?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Practice Problems 20. What is the molar mass of a gas that has a density of g/L? Which diatomic gas do you think it is?

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The Volume of a Mole of Gas Practice Problems 21. What is the density of Cl 2 at STP?

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Mole Conversion Practice Problems 22. How many moles in 9.0 liters of a gas at STP?

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Mole Conversion Practice Problems 23. How many moles in 15 g of NaOH?

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Mole Conversion Practice Problems 24. How many liters would 2.9 moles of CO 2 occupy at STP?

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Mole Conversion Practice Problems 25. How many grams would 30 L of CO 2 gas weigh?

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Mole Conversion Practice Problems 26. How many atoms are in 50 L of H 2 gas?

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Calculating Percent Composition Percent Composition is the percent by mass of each element in a compound. You find the percent composition by dividing the mass of the element by the total mass of the molecule. If you think back to the separation lab we have done this already by calculating the % of salt, % of sand, and % of iron!!

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Calculating Percent Composition Example: How many students are in this class? Find the percentage of Males and the percentage of Females.

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Calculating Percent Composition Example: What percentage of students in the class are 15? 16? 17?

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Calculating Percent Composition Example: What is the percent composition of each element in C 6 H 12 O 6 ?

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Calculating Percent Composition Example: What is the percent by mass of each element in H 2 O?

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Calculating Percent Composition Example: How many grams of nitrogen are in 59 g of AgNO 3 ?

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 27. Which compound has the smallest percentage of Chlorine? ◦HCl ◦KCl ◦LiCl ◦NaCl

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 28. Of the following compounds, which does Strontium have the highest percent composition? ◦SrCl 2 ◦SrI 2 ◦SrO ◦SrS

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 29. What is the percent composition of Oxygen in the compound propanal (CH 3 CH 2 CHO)?

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 30. What is the percent by mass of Oxygen in H 2 SO 4 ?

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 31. What is the total mass of oxygen in 1.00 mol of Al 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 ?

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Percent Composition Practice Problems 32. What is the percent composition of Carbon in CO?

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Calculation Empirical Formulas An empirical formula is the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound. The empirical formula may or may not be the same as the molecular formula.

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Example: The molecular formula for CO 2 is the same as the empirical formula for CO 2 because the atoms are in the lowest whole number ratio.

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Example: The molecular formula for C 2 H 2, could be that, or it could be C 6 H 6. But the empirical formula for both is CH, since that is the lowest whole number ratio.

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Calculation Empirical Formulas It is important to understand that the empirical formula gives you an idea of the ratio of between elements within a compound.

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Example: Calculate the empirical formula of a compound made up of: 32.00%C 42.66% O %N 6.67%H

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 33. A compound contains 40% calcium, 12% carbon, 48% oxygen by mass. What is the empirical formula for this compound?

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 34. Write the empirical formula for the following compound: P 4 O 10

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 35. A compound is 86% carbon and 14% hydrogen by mass. What is the empirical formula for the compound?

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 36. Which of the following is an empirical compound? ◦C 4 H 10 ◦C 6 H 12 O 6 ◦P 2 O 5 ◦C 2 H 2 O 2

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 37. A compound was analyzed and was found to contain 75% carbon and 25% hydrogen by mass. What is the compounds empirical formula?

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Calculation Empirical Formulas Practice Problems 38. What is the simplest ration of nitrogen to oxygen in the compound nitrogen (IV) oxide

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Knowing that the Molecular formula of a substance is not always equal to the Empirical Formula of the substance, what can we say about Molecular Weight vs Empirical Formula Weight?

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Calculation Molecular Formulas We can determine the molecular formula we first know the molar mass and the empirical formula of the substance. We then compare the molar mass to the Empirical Formula Weight to determine the ratio.

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Examples: The molar mass of a substance is 60g and its empirical formula is CH 4 N. Find the Molecular Formula.

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Examples: The molar mass of a substance is 78g and its empirical formula is CH. Find the Molecular Formula.

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Examples: Find the molecular formula for a compound that has: 54.5% C 13.6% H 31.8 % N molar mass = 88g

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Practice Problems 39. What’s the molecular formula of a compound given the empirical formula P 2 O 5 and molar mass 284 g?

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Practice Problems 41. What is the molecular formula of a compound that has a molecular mass of 42 g and empirical formula of CH 2 ?

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Practice Problems 42. Find the molecular formula for a compound that has: 54.5% C 13.6% O 31.8 % N molar mass = 176 g/mol

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Practice Problems 43. Find the molecular formula for a compound that has: 25.9% N 74.1% H molar mass = 108 g/mol

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Calculation Molecular Formulas Practice Problems 44. Find the molecular formula for a compound that has: 22.8 g Ba 2.00 g C 8.00 g O molar mass = g/mol

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Hydrates Hydrated compounds have water molecules attached to them. CuSO 4 5H 2 O is copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. For every formula unit of CuSO 4, there are 5 water molecules attached to it. There are always numerous waters for one salt.

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Hydrates Example: Start with 1.54 g wet magnesium phosphate. Dry it so that there are only 1.28 g residue left. Find the formula of the hydrate.

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Hydrates Example: Calculate the percent composition in NaCl ∙ 5H 2 O?

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Hydrates Practice Problems 45. Calculate the percent composition in BaCl 2 ∙ 2H 2 O

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Hydrates Practice Problems 46. What is the percent by mass of the water in the hydrate Na 2 CO 3 ∙ 10H 2 O?

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Hydrates Practice Problems 47. If you start with 1.54 g wet magnesium phosphate. Dry it so that there are only 1.02 g residue left. Find the formula of the hydrate.

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Hydrates Practice Problems 48. Start with 1.62 g of hydrated cobalt (II) chloride. After heating, there are 0.88 g of solid reside. Find the formula of the hydrate.

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