Presentation on theme: "Islam Adherents to the Islamic religion make up around 20% of the world’s population (1 billion). It is the world’s second largest religion. It is interesting."— Presentation transcript:
Islam Adherents to the Islamic religion make up around 20% of the world’s population (1 billion). It is the world’s second largest religion. It is interesting to note that the four nations with the largest number of Muslims (one who submits to the will of God) are outside the Middle East: Indonesia – approx. 165 million (88%) Pakistan – approx. 110 million (97%) Bangladesh – approx. 97 million (85%) India – approx. 90 million (10%)
Muhammad Muhammad was born in 570 A.D. in to an influential Arabian tribe in the city of Mecca. Mecca was a very important city in the ancient world as it was a frequent resting place and important stop for trading caravans. It was also important religiously because the Kaaba was located there. The Kaaba is a cubical structure that, at the time of Muhammad, was said to contain 360 deities – each Arabian tribe had hand-picked its own deity, and came to Mecca each year to pay homage to their god. It was customary for those who were religiously minded to retreat to a place of solitude one each year, and Muhammad observed this practice for several years in a cave at Mount Hira. In the year 610 (Muhammad was 40), Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. Muhammad could neither read nor write so he was instructed to memorize the words given to him by Gabriel. This complete recitation which Muhammad received over a 23 year period, ending in 632, the year of his death, is known as the Qur'an/Koran (the revealed word of God). Muhammad was unsure of the origin of these revelations, however the influence of his wife led him to teach that which had been revealed to him. Muhammad preached a message of strict monotheism (against the wishes of the leaders in his own tribe), and began to build a significant following. Those who followed him were persecuted and were forced to flee Mecca in the year 622 (went to Madinah). The Islamic calendar begins on July 16 of that year (the first day of the lunar year).
Muhammad cont. The importance of Muhammad to the Islamic faith cannot be understated…he is the prophet of God and is known as the “Seal of the Prophets.” The five main articles of the Islamic religion, as communicated through Muhammad are: ONE God (Allah): This is the central doctrine of Islam and it is important recognize that no “partner” is to be associated with God. To associate a partner with God is to commit to a most heinous, a sin for which the Qur’an offers no forgiveness (4:48). “He is Allah, the One, the Eternal, Absolute. He begets not, nor is he begotten, and there is none like Him” (Qur’an 112:3-4). Angels: Spiritual beings under the command of God. They administer the kingdom, and carry out his orders obediently – Gabriel is the highest “ranking” angel. Angles are said to have specific roles in regard to the recording of deeds – some are to record good deeds and some are to record bad deeds. The presence of angles is very much a prominent aspect of the Islamic system of belief.
Muhammad cont. Prophets of God: According to the Qur’an, God has sent a prophet to every nation to preach the message of there being only one God; these messengers reveal God’s command to worship only Him and to obey His commands. Among many others (124,000), there are the Biblical figures of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, Solomon, Jonah, John the Baptist, and Jesus. Each of these prophets were given for a particular age and region, but Muhammad transcends all boundaries. The Holy Books: The four highest ranking prophets were given books of divine revelation: Moses (Torah/Tawrat), David (Psalms/ Zabur), Jesus (Gospel/Injil), and Muhammad (Qur’an). Muslims believe that only the Qur’an has been preserved in its uncorrupted state (therefore, any translation of the Qur’an is in some way flawed). The Qur’an invites people back to the true teachings of the previous prophets; additionally, there is no need for other prophets after Muhammad, he was the last and gave Allah’s final teachings. The Day of Judgment: Muslims believe that this world will come to an end on a day Allah has appointed – the world will stand before Allah in judgment. Each person’s deeds will be weighed; those emerge successfully from Judgment will go to eternal paradise, those who are condemned will be sent to Hell (Is then the man who believes no better than the man who is rebellious and wicked? Not equal are they. – Qur’an 32:18). While unsure of their fate, Muslims are confident in the mercy of Allah.
The Five Pillars In Islam, faith and works are said to go hand in hand; a mere verbal declaration of faith does not make one a Muslim, for belief in Allah makes obedience to Him a duty. Only when practice is consistent with profession will one be a true Muslim. The following five formal acts are the keys for developing and strengthening a Muslim’s faith and obedience. Testimony of Faith (Shahadah) – the word Shahadah means “to bear witness.” “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.” When a person recites the Shahadah with sincerity and purity of heart and in front of public witness, he/she becomes a Muslim. Prayer (Salah) – Formal prayer is the most important act of worship; it is mankind’s connection to Allah. Muslim’s are required to say seventeen cycles, or rak’a, of prayer each day. These cycles are usually spread over five separate acts of prayer each day – dawn, noon, midafternoon, dusk, and two hours after sunset. The prayer can be an individual act or an act done in a group, which is said to strengthen the bonds of love and brotherhood. There is a prescribed washing that must take place before prayer, you must have a prayer rug or be in a mosque, and when praying you must face Mecca.
The Five Pillars cont. Fasting (Ramadan) – “…Ramadan is the month in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, and clear signs for guidance and judgment between right and wrong. “So every one of you should spent that month fasting…while Allah attends to every facility for you…” (Qur’an 2: ). During the month of Ramadan, Muslims are expected to fast during the daylight hours. After sundown the believer is allowed to partake again. The month is filled with increased devotion, piety, and purity of mind, body, and soul. Almsgiving (Zakat) – The Muslim is commanded to give at least 2.5% of his/her wealth/accumulated assets/income, to be used to support the poor, orphans, widows, those overcome by debt, slaves, and to assist in the spread of Islam. This fosters the quality of sacrifice and rids one of selfishness, greed, and vanity. Pilgrimage (Hajj) – Once in a lifetime, a Muslim who is financially able and healthy, must travel to Mecca, during the month of Hajj (12 th month of the lunar year). Each pilgrim must wear the ihram (a white cloth robe), which has the effect of eliminating all class or status distinctions during the Hajj. The process of visiting several sacred sites takes about one week, but it is the prayer at the Kaaba that is said to be the most significant event.
I went home radiant with hope and joy, for I have fulfilled the command to humankind to undertake the pilgrimage. Above all, I return praying that it might please Allah, to find my Hajj acceptable, and may what the Prophet (s.a.w.) said be true of my own journey: "There is no reward for a pious pilgrimage but Paradise."
The “Branches” of Islam Sunni: Accounting for at least 85 percent of the Islamic world, the Sunni claim to be the direct continuation of the faith as defined by Muhammad. For many years they acknowledged the religious authority of a ruling caliph, the major point of contention with the “breakaway” Shiite movement. The Sunni derive their name through reliance on the "Sunnah“ – the lifestyle and practices of Muhammad as recorded in a collection of writings called the Hadith (the record of individual sayings or actions or approvals of Muhammad - taken as a model of behavior by Muslims). The Sunni accept the Sunnah as a source of spiritual wisdom, while the Shiite insist on the primacy of the Koran. Shi’ite: The smaller of the two principal branches of Islam, the Shiite account for at least 10 percent of all Muslims. They originally were followers of the fourth caliph, Ali, who was Muhammad's son-in-law through the prophet's daughter Fatima. Ali claimed that Muhammad on his deathbed selected Ali as leader of the faith, but Ali was murdered during the fifth year of his reign. The Shiite formally broke away from Muslim leaders recognized by the Sunni around 680. A principal belief of the Shiite is that no caliph since Ali has been legitimate. The present religious authority of the Shiite clerics is derived from their role as deputies of the absent 12th Imam.
Key Terms Shari'ah: The revealed and the canonical laws of the religion of Islam. The legislative power in the government lies in the hands of legislative assembly. The legislators are to make rules and regulations within the scope and dimensions of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. These rules constitute the Shari'ah. Mosque: Muslim building of prayer and worship. Jihad: Literally means, "struggle“ or “striving”; refers to the obligation of all Muslims to struggle against error and evil. In another sense it refers to the defensive military struggle against those who would attack Muslims and subvert their faith, hence the concept of the 'Holy war’. P.B.U.H. : These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon Him which corresponds to the meaning of the Arabic expression “Alaihis Salam”, which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam“ (may the blessing and the peace of Allah be upon him). Therefore it is recommended that people do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a.w) in writing.