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Comenius Project 2008-2009 IES Cardenal López de Mendoza. Burgos (Spain ) Students: 4th Year ESO Participant teachers 1-Jesús María Heras Terrazas 2-Consuelo.

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Presentation on theme: "Comenius Project 2008-2009 IES Cardenal López de Mendoza. Burgos (Spain ) Students: 4th Year ESO Participant teachers 1-Jesús María Heras Terrazas 2-Consuelo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comenius Project IES Cardenal López de Mendoza. Burgos (Spain ) Students: 4th Year ESO Participant teachers 1-Jesús María Heras Terrazas 2-Consuelo Sánchez Chamoso 3-Mª Concepción López Pérez Coordinator teacher Domiciana Tapia Gallardo Special collaboration Enrique Pascual Pérez

2 1- How often do you have breakfast? Always: 148 Sometimes: 26 Never: 4

3 2-If you answered yes, what did you have for breakfast this morning? Cola-cao: 125 Biscuits: 92 Coffee: 14 Fruit: 14 Fruit juice: 28 Toast: 27 Yoghourt: 10 Other: 40

4 3-Do you have anything at break? Always: 127 Sometimes: 40 Never: 14

5 4-If you answered yes, what do you usually have? A sandwich: 125 A bar of chocolate: 7 A bun: 8 Other: 21

6 5-Do you have a hot lunch? Always: 131 Sometimes: 40 Never: 4

7 6- If you have a hot lunch, where do you eat it? At the table with the family 123 In front of the TV 42 Wherever you are 11 It varies15

8 7- What did you have for lunch yesterday?

9 8-Do you have an evening meal? Always108 Sometime s 67 Never5

10 9 – If you have an evening meal, where do you eat it? At the table with your family 92 In front of the TV 48 Wherever you are 35 It varies12

11 10- What did you have for dinner last night?

12 11- What do you drink more during the day? Water 158 Soft drinks 19 Other 5

13 12– How many portions of fruit did you eat yesterday?

14 13– Is any member of your family or yourself on a diet now? Yes25 No155

15 14- Do you think that eating healthy will allow you to live better and be happier? Yes152 No28

16 BALANCED DIET 1 – WHAT IS IT? It’s a diet which must be provided with the suitable proportions according to the characteristics of each person. It’s all the nutrients and energy needed to do all the daily activities. 2 – AIMS 1 – A physically and mental development. 2 – To modify bad habits and strengthen the good ones. 3 – To choose the food correctly. 3 – CONDITIONS TO EAT WELL 1 – To balance the calories consumed with the ones we need. 2 – The diet must be varied and pleasant. 3 – To eat the adequate proportion of proteins (15%), glucoses (55- 60%), fat (30-35%), vitamins, water and cereals.

17 4 – NURISHMENT HABITS Depending on: 1 – The family. 2 – The food concept. 3 – The time it takes us. 4 – The food eaten. 5 – PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPED SOCIETIES IN RELATION TO THE NOURISHMENT 1 – Fat exceeds in the meals and absence of carbohydrates. 2 – The 15% of the population don’t eat enough proteins. 3 – Diseases like overweight, cancer, etc., appear. 4 – A very fast change in the nourishment habits due to the food coming from other cultures. 6 – FOOD’S FUNCTION Fat and glucoses give us energy, proteins which help us to grow up since they contribute to give vitamins and minerals.

18 7 – CLASSIFICATION OF NOURISHMENT: FOOD WHEEL

19 8 – FOOD PYRAMID It indicates the variety and proportion of food that must be consumed during the whole day. There’s more quantity of food on the base and there’s less on the top.

20 9 – PIECES OF ADVICE 1 – You shouldn’t leave out any of the five daily meals. 2 – You should avoid eating too much sugar and soft drinks. 3 – You should eat slowly and when you are hungry. 4 – You should avoid unsuitable diets. 5 – You should have adequate calories according to our physic activity: for example, young people between years old, depending on their sex, they can do a kind of activity or another: --- Women: moderate physical activity: 2350 kcal. --- Men: moderate physical activity: 2550 kcal. SUGGESTED BALANCED DAILY MENUS --- Breakfast: kcal. --- Morning snacks: kcal. --- Lunch: kcal. --- Afternoon snack: kcal. --- Dinner: kcal.

21 FUNCTIONS OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUTRIENTS WHICH FOOD CONTAINS Glucoses and lipids (greases) are employed as a source of calories, for that reason they have the same energetic mission. They must provide with the 55% from the total energy of the glucoses and the 35% of the greases. Proteins have a primary mission which is the contribution of the substrate for the renovation and the growth of many different structures of the organism. We name this plastic and formative function. They give the 15% from the total energy. The control of many parts in the organism function constitutes the regulative function and it is covered by vitamins and one hundred minerals, as iron, iodine, chlorine…

22 THE SEVEN GROUPS OF FOOD These groups of food are normally represented in form of a wheel. In the first level milk and derivatives are represented. In the second level there are all the meet forms (calf, chicken, pork, lamb…), their derivatives (sausages, ham…), fish, seafood and eggs. The food of these two groups contains essentially proteins of animal origin and they are, therefore, plastic or “trainer” food. The third group is potatoes, dried vegetables and dry fruit. It has an energy input, but proteins and vitamins are food that combines three functions. Vegetables form the fourth group. They contribute with vitamins and minerals. The same happens with the fruit of the fifth group that contribute the majority of the c vitamin needed. These groups are essentially regulatory. The sixth group involves bread, cereal, sugar and sweets. It is the group of carbohydrates (glucoses). On the other hand, the seventh group is the fat typical group, with oil, butter, bacon… The food of these two groups is energetic. We choose one or more products of each group to design the daily menu.

23 THE SEVEN GROUPS OF FOOD

24 NEEDS OF ENERGY ACCORDING TO THE AGE --- Girls between years old, 2200 kcal/day approximately. --- Boys between years old, 3000 kcal/day approximately. Always considering the physical activity that they do. DISTRIBUTION OF DAILY ENERGY Breakfast % Lunch % Snack % Dinner %

25 Breakfast can be done in one intake although it is advisable to do it in two, one when we get up and other at midday. We’ll do the distribution of the calories depending on the sex, boys and girls, and on different ages. We will do a menu with about 2500 calories per day. According to these data, about 637,5 calories are for breakfast, 255 for the midday snack and the afternoon snack, 765 for lunch and 637,5 for dinner.

26 SUGGESTED DIFFERENT TYPES OF BALANCED DIETS Breakfast 1 – Calories: 657. Milk (200g – 130 kcal), sugar (10 g – 37,5 kcal), cocoa (10 g – 59 kcal), bread (100 g – 258 kcal), butter (15 g – 112 kcal), jam (20 g – 20 kcal), juice (40 kcal). 2 – Calories: 657,3 Milk (200 g – 130 kcal), cocoa (10 g – 59 kcal), sugar (10 g – 37,3 kcal), bun (100 g – 315 kcal), biscuits (20 g – 76 kcal), juice (40 kcal). 3 – Calories: 500,3 Milk (200 g – 130 kcal), cocoa (10 g – 59 kcal), sugar (10 g – 37,3 kcal), cereal (100g – 160 kcal), biscuits (30 g – 114 kcal).

27 SUGGESTED BALANCED MENUS BREAKFAST: A glass of milk (250 ml), cocoa (20 g), cookies (40 g). A glass of milk (250 ml), cereal (50 g), fruit (120 g). Fresh juice (250 ml), bread (50 g), Burgos cheese (60 g), fruit (120 g). Yoghourt (125 g), bread (50 g), cold cuts of turkey or serrano ham (50 g), fruit (120 g). A glass of milk (250 ml), sugar (10 g), bread (50 g), butter (20 g), jam (25 g). MORNING SNACK: Fruit (120 g) and bread (40 g). Juice (150 ml) and Swiss roll (50 g). Bread (50 g) and cold meat (50 g). Bread (50 g) and Burgos cheese (150 g).

28 LUNCH: Chick peas (80 g) + sausages (10 g). Sole (100 g). Peach (100 g) Macaroni (80 g). Sausages (50 g) + oil (5 ml). White wheat bread (50 g). Grapefruit. Beans (100 g). Bread (50 g). Rabbit (100 g). Potatoes (50 g). Tangerine (150 g). 3 “delicias” of rice: rice (60 g) and peas (20 g). Carrots (30 g), green beans (30 g), boiled eggs (30 g), ham (30 g), shrimp (30 g), oil (5 ml). Hake “roman style”: hake (120 g), flour (10 g). Pear (100 g), bread (50 g).

29 NOURISHMENT PYRAMID

30 MILK, YOGHOURT AND CHEESE

31 MEAT, FISH, SELLFISH AND EGGS

32 VEGETABLES

33 PULSE, POTATOES AND DRIED VEGETABLES

34 FRUIT

35 CEREAL, BREAD, RICE, SWEET AND PASTA

36 FAT AND OIL

37 CHARACTERISTICS OF A BALANCED DIET: It must fulfil the following conditions: To contribute enough quantity of energy for the needs of the functioning and development of the organism To contain forming elements that contribute to the refill of growth of the different biological structures. To provide the regulatory system with substances that control the different phases of the metabolism All these substances must keep a proportion among them. A diet is balanced when it allows a suitable state of health. We have to take into account factors like age, and physiological special situation, keeping an appropriate state of health qualifies people to do exercises which demand search type of work.

38 BREAKFAST Breakfast is the main meal in the day. It contains the 20/25% of calories we take per day. Having a balance breakfast it must include dairies, fruit and cereals. Apart from this we could also have some meat and sweet baker, only in moderate ingestions. Dairies give us quantity proteins, calcium and A,B and D vitamins. Cereals contain vitamins, minerals, fibre and glucoses which provide us energy. Fruit provide us with sugar, water, vitamins, minerals and fibre. This is an example of balanced breakfast: First we will have a fresh orange juice. Then we will drink some milk with cocoa and biscuits or a toast with olives oil or butter and jam. We can also have some cold meet and a bun. And you can drink as much water as you want.

39 A HEALTHY BREAKFAST

40 DIET The main aim is elaborating a good diet for teenagers from 14 to 16 years old. The energetic availability of the developed countries (we are among there) is over 3000kcal per person, and the way we eat can be harmful for their health. An excess of fat, proteins, salt and not enough complex glucoses, good in fibre with is contained in vegetables and dried vegetables. Our lifestyle moves away from a healthy lifestyle is which physical exercise, a good balanced diet is basic. The main healthy problems related to nourishment are obesity, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer…

41 We will try to elaborate a diet with food teenagers like, but always trying to protect the regional gastronomy and respecting the requirements of a balanced diet. We have observed that: · There is a clear predominance of eating meat and derivates against fish intake. · Abuse of fast food · Excess of proteins and fat, which give a high contribution of cholesterol and a vegetables shortage intake. ·Excessive abuse of sweets, ice-cream, frizzy drinks… ·Unbalanced breakfast, which can mean a lower school performance

42 SHOPPING TROLLEY We experienced a shopping day to show in a video what kind of food we should take with us in our shopping trolley. As we decided that we need to have a healthy diet, then we made a list of the healthy products we wanted to take: * Dairies: milk, butter, yoghourt, cheese. * Dried vegetables. * Fresh vegetables and fruit. * Pasta. * Meat. * Fish. * Cereals and biscuits. * Nuts. * Olive oil.

43 SHOPPING TROLLEY

44 The importance of physical activity in a healthy lifestyle

45 “Too much 5“ Smoking  Alcohol  Stress  Food  Drugs The current societies are characterized by: “1 too much little” Exercise Sedentary lifestyle

46 CIGARRETES ACOHOL STRESS FOOD DRUGS SEDENTARY LIVESTYLE Healthy ways of life an inadequate conducts PROBLEMS AND DISEASES  Cardiovascular  Respiratory  Muscular  Osseous articulate  Metabolic  Psychological

47 BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON HEALTH Systems Effects Cardiovascular It increases the systolic volume and the force of the heart. It increases de vacuolisation and improves the recovery. It decreases the cardiac frequency and the arterial tension. Respiratory It increases the pulmonary capacity and the number of alveolus. It increases the muscles effectiveness. It increases the pulmonary ventilation. Muscular It improves the speed, elasticity, force and resistance. It decrease the muscular disease effects and the risk of injuries. It increases the number and size of the muscles

48 Osseo-Reticular It lubricates the joints and avoids movement limitations. It favours the elasticity of joints. Metabolic It decreases and controls the corporal weight. It prevents and avoids obesity. It modulates and regulates the metabolism. Psychological Fights anxiety, stress and depression. Improves the corporal image and this way the self-esteem. Contributes to the mental well-being and psychological. It improves the mood.

49 REASONS FOR NOT DOING A BIT OF EXERCISE  Lack of free time.  Lack of sports facilities.  Studies.  Other tastes and interests.  weariness.  Going out with friends.  I don’t like physical activity and sport.  Other reasons. WE NEED TO CHANGE TEENAGERS’ MENTALITY ANS MAKE THEM THINK OF THE IMPORTANCE OF DOING EXERCISE TO BE HEALTHIER CIGARRETES SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE

50 BE AWARE OF THE NECESSITY OF DOING PHYSICAL EXERCISE PHYSICAL-SPORT FORMATION Where ? When ? Why ? How ?

51 PHYSICAL – SPORT FORMATION WHEN ? Childhood and adolescence _To create healthy habits and lifestyle. _We can improve or damage our health. _To decrease or increase diseases WHERE ? Educational period of _To include coherent educational programs secondary education about physical exercise and heath in the educational lessons.

52 WHY ? If we regularly and moderately practise physical activities and _To present diseases. sports we will get _To prolong our life expectancy. _To improve our life quality. HOW ? Encouraging young people _Healthy physical exercise long-term benefits to practise more _Sports. *They must be :recreational, formative playful and attractive. *They must avoid competitiveness and discrimination.

53 WHAT TYPE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IS HEALTHY ? Physical activity is healthy when: It ensures us more befits than risk when it is practised. The way to practise is recreational. It adapts to the real possibilities of the person according to: Sex, age and level of physical condition. When you plan the activity some basic principles are considered: _FRECUENCY :at least three times a week. _INTENSITY: between moderated and vigorous, based on aerobics efforts. _DURATION: between 30 minutes and 1 hour. _VARIETY :change healthy activities. _PROGRESSION: increase the intensity and the duration slowly _PHYSICAL CONDITIONS FACTS: Cardio respiratory endurance Muscle resistance. Flexibility and resilience. Strength and muscle. Body posture.

54 1 - Do you think that physical activity and sport influence positive healthy? 00 Nothing 02 It depends 33 A bit 6963 A lot GirlsBoys

55 2 - What do you think that your level of physical condition is? 11 Very bad 71 Bad 3120 Regular 3235 Good 111 Very good GirlsBoys

56 3 - Do your parents practice some physical or sport activities? Father: Mother: 620Never 3630Sometimes 622A lot BOYSGIRLS 2025Never 3934Sometimes 913A lot BOYSGIRLS

57 4 - Do your parents encourage you to do some physical activities o some sport? 11E.-They do not say anything to me 212D.-They advise me to do 2730C-.They discourage me 3026B.-They leave me to decide 87A-.They insist me very much BOYSGIRLS

58 5 - Do you do any training of some type of school of federated sport during the week? GirlsBoysDays

59 6 - Do you practice any type of physical voluntary activity during the school year? GirlsBoysDays

60 7- Do you do any type of physical voluntary activity during the vacations? GirlsBoysDays

61 8-The reason of not doing more physical and sports activity is 1011Others 2320Meet friends 2011I have other interest 78Haven’t got the means 42I don’t like it 1113Tiredness 2329Have to study 4928Haven’t got time GirlsBoys

62 DOING EXERCISE TO KEEP FIT

63 RECIPES

64 1 - APETIZERS

65 “Boquerones en vinagre” Ingredients 1 kilo fresh anchovies good Spanish virgin olive oil white vinegar 3-4 garlic cloves fresh parsley sea salt

66 1Clean the anchovies/boquerones under water. Get rid of the heads and open the clean anchovies/boquerones as if they were books. Get rid of the insides of the fish and after rinsing them, place them in in a deep tray. 2Once you have the tray covered with "open book" fish, sprinkle some sea salt and cover them with the white vinegar. 3Put them in the fridge for a minimum of 12 hours. I usually let them sometime between 12 to 18 hours. 4Once the macerating is done, cut a couple of cloves of garlic in really thin slices (it depends a lot on how much fish you have and how much you like garlic). Put aside. 5Chop parsley in really small pieces. 6Get each fish out of the tray where they have been macerating. Arrange them nicely in another tray. 7Once they are arranged sprinkle the cut garlic and the parsley over the fish. 8Cover with good Spanish virgin olive oil. 9Enjoy with white wine and bread or a baguette. 10The prep time varies depending on your fish cleaning and cutting skill.

67 “TORTILLA DE PATATAS” (Spanish Potatoes Omelette) INGREDIENTS: 4 medium-sized potatoes, peeled and thinly sliced 6 eggs 1 onion, chopped ¼ litre olive oil salt

68 Steps: 1: Wash and cut the potatoes into thin slices. Heat the oil in the pan, and add the potatoes and salt. Fry, stirring occasionally. Tip: If you prefer the potatoes to be soft, use a spatula to mash them as they are frying. As soon as they are a golden colour, remove from the pan and put the potato mixture either in a sieve or on kitchen paper, so that as much oil as possible drains away or is absorbed. 2: Beat the eggs well with a pinch of salt, and add to the potatoes. Mix well. 3: Put two small spoonfuls of olive oil in the frying pan, so that the bottom of the pan is covered with a thin layer of oil. Once the oil is hot, add the potato and egg mixture. Tip: shake the pan gently as you move the mixture, so that none sticks to the bottom. Once the omelette seems to be cooked, use the lid of the frying pan (or a large plate) to tip the omelette out of the pan, add a little more oil and slide the omelette in again, this time putting the less cooked side first into the pan. If you need to repeat this step, so that the omelette is perfectly cooked and golden on both sides, you may do so. This omelette is delicious hot or cold

69 “Pulpo á Feira” (boiled Octopus, Gallician style) Ingredients A big Octopus A lot of Water Onion Potatoes Laurel Cooking Salt Spanish Spicy Red Pepper (Pimentón) Spanish Virgin Olive Oil

70 Steps 1 Boil water in a big pot with a peeled onion. 2 Get the big octopus and drown three times into the boiled water. This is because we don't want to remove the octopus peel. 3 After 30 minutes we have to look if the octopus is not too soft, and move it away. 4 The boiled potatoes have been cooked in slices before (thickness: +-1 cm,) during 15 minutes with laurel. 5 Cut the octopus in little pieces with scissors and put in a wood plate. 6 Sprinkle the cooking salt, Spanish spicy red pepper, and add virgin olive oil. Serve hot and enjoy it. Note: This delicious recipe is better with an Alvariño white wine and home-made bread.

71 2 - FIRST COURSES

72 “Sopa de Ajo” (Castillian Garlic Soup) Ingredients: 1/3 cup olive oil 3 cloves garlic, sliced Spanish cured ham, cut into 1/4” cubes 2-3 slices of day-old bread, medium size 1 tbsp sweet paprika 1 quarter of water salt 6 eggs

73 Steps: 1.Serves 6. 2.Heat the oil in a heavy frying pan. Add not-too- thinly sliced garlic. Before the garlic turns brown, add the cubed ham and the slices of bread. Sauté for a few minutes on medium heat. 3.Add the sweet paprika, followed by the water and salt. Bring to a slow boil. Boil for 5-10 minutes. 4.To poach the eggs, carefully add eggs to the soup one at a time. 5.Scoop out poached eggs one at a time into soup bowls. Then, slowly ladle the soup into each bowl.

74 “Gazpacho” Ingredients (for 4 people): 1 Kilo tomatoes (preferable plum tomatoes) 1/2 small onion (60 grams) 1 small green pepper 1 small cucumber (the small chubby Spanish type) 1 small cup of olive oil 2 desert spoons of vinager 200 grams of bread from the day before, soaked in water Small portions of diced tomatoes, red and green peppers, cucumber, onion and bread or croutons to sprinkle on top.

75 Steps: 1: Put the tomatoes, onion, pepper, cucumber, vinager, oil and bread into a liquidizer. If you want to dilute it, add a glass of water. Tip: if you want to go for a tangy garlic taste, add a small amount of fresh garlic to the mixture before liquidizing. 2: Put the mixture into a bowl, add salt and pepper and leave the gazpacho to chill for at least an hour. If you want to eat it straight away, you can put some ice cubes in to cool it down. 3: Serve the gazpacho en soup bowls, with the portions of diced tomatoes, pepper, cucumber, onion, croutons etc on the table, so that everyone can add them to their bowl as they prefer. Tip: you can also sprinkle diced serrano ham or hard boiled egg.

76 (Spanish Potato Salad) “Ensaladilla Rusa” Ingredients: 7 medium potatoes 2 roasted red peppers (bottled is fine) 1 16 oz can of peas and carrots, drained 2 hard-boiled eggs 1 6 oz can tuna, drained mayonnaise – For home- made, see recipe link below. Optional: 4-5 spears white asparagus for garnish

77 Steps: This Spanish potato salad recipe makes 6 servings. 1.Scrub the potatoes to clean off any lose dirt and sand. Pour water into a large pot, cover and bring to a boil on high heat. Place potatoes, eggs and carrots in the pot and boil them with skins until they are cooked, but not too soft. Test the doneness by pricking with a fork to make sure they are cooked, but still firm. Don’t overcook the ingredients or when mixing the salad, you’ll end up with mashed potatoes. 2.If you are preparing home-made mayonnaise, do so while the ingredients are cooking. 3.Drain the water from the pot and add cold water to the pot, covering the ingredients. Change every few minutes until everything is cool enough to handle with your bare hands. Refrigerate for a few minutes to cool further. 4.Remove from refrigerator and peel potatoes, eggs and carrots. Cut into small (approximately 1/2") cubes. Return to refrigerator while you prepare the other ingredients. 5.Cut all ingredients into small cubes and mix all together. 6.Add the mayonnaise mixture and mix thoroughly. If necessary, add more mayonnaise. Smooth top of potato salad, preparing for decoration. 7.Presentation 8.Put the mixture on a try and put some more mayonnaise over it. Then decorate with some red boiled pepper, olives and asparagus.

78 3 - MAIN COURSES

79 “Merluza a la vasca”(basque hake) Ingredients -Flour, for coating -black pepper -900g hake steaks, cut into large chunks -Olive oil, for shallow-frying -1 Onion, chopped -6 clove Garlic, chopped -225ml fresh fish stock -225ml White wine -12 Asparagus -12 small fresh clams -12 raw mussels -100g fresh or frozen peas -4 hard-boiled eggs, shelled and halved -juice of 1 Lemons -50g chilled Butter

80 Steps 1. Preheat the oven to 190°C/gas Season the flour with salt and freshly ground pepper. Coat the hake pieces in the seasoned flour. 3. Heat the olive oil in a large, heavy-based frying pan. Add in the hake and fry for 1 minute each side. 4. Place the fried hake in a single layer in an ovenproof dish. 5. Add the onion and garlic to the frying pan and fry gently until softened. Layer the fried onion and garlic over the hake. 6. Add the fish stock and white wine to the frying pan, scraping the pan with a spatula to deglaze the pan. Bring to the boil and cook briskly until reduced by a third. 7. Pour the fish stock mixture over the fish and layer the asparagus on top. 8. Press the clams and mussels into the gaps between the hake. Cover the dish with kitchen foil and bake for 8 minutes. 9. Add the peas and halved eggs to the hake. Bake for 2 more minutes. 10. Carefully strain the hake cooking juices into a pan. Bring to the boil and reduce by half. 11. Add in the lemon juice and whisk in the butter to make a smooth sauce. 12. Divide the hake mixture among 4 serving plates. Spoon over the sauce, sprinkle with parsley and serve at once with lemon wedges

81 Burgos Roast Baby Lamb Ingredients: 1 baby lamb (8-9 kilos) water Olive oil 1 glass of white wine

82 Preparation: 1.Place the salted lamb on a roasting pan and paint it with some olive oil. Roast for 40 or 50 minutes turning the meat once brown on both sides. Pour the white wine. Let it roast until the meat is tender. Pour some water over the meat from time to time. 2.It must be juicy when served.

83 Bacalao al Pil-Pil Ingredients 1 kilo salted cod, then desalted 1 1/2 cups olive oil 3 cloves of garlic, thinly sliced 1 small dried hot chili pepper, seeded and cut into rings

84 Preparation: 1.Drain the salt cod and pat dry with paper towels. Cut into 3-inch squares, leaving the skin intact. When cooking later in olive oil, the skin will release the needed jelly to help emulsify the sauce. 2.In a 12-inchpan, heat the olive oil over medium heat. When the oil is hot, add the garlic and the chili and fry, stirring occasionally, for 2 to 3 minutes, or until the garlic starts to turn golden. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the garlic and chili to a small bowl and reserve for garnish. Reserve the oil in the pan. 3.Decrease the heat to medium-low and add the cod pieces to the oil. Simmer for about 10 minutes, being careful not to let the oil become too hot. The oil should just barely sizzle around the edges of the fish pieces. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the cod to a plate and then pour the olive oil into a wide heatproof bowl to cool. When the cod is cool enough to handle, remove any errant bones, leaving the pieces as intact as possible. 4.Return the cod pieces, skin side up and in a single layer, to the pan. At this point, make sure that the pan, the cod, and the reserved olive oil are all lukewarm. 5.Place the pan over medium heat and begin by spooning 2 or 3 tablespoons of the olive oil over the cod. It its here that the dance begins: using both hands, rotate the pan in circular motions over the burner. Continue the motion until the first drops of oil start to emulsify. You will know that the emulsion is beginning when the oil drops turn pale and cling to one another. Eventually the whole sauce will turn pale white. 6.Continue to rotate the pan, interrupting only to add the olive oil gradually, spoonful by spoonful, until all the oil is incorporated into the emulsion. Depending on the quality of the cod and the jelly content of its skin, it will take anywhere from 15 to 30 minutes to make the sauce. 7.Divide the cod evenly among individual plates and spoon the sauce over the top. Garnish with the reserved garlic and chili. Serve hot or warm.

85 4 - DESSERTS

86 “Arroz con Leche” (Rice Pudding) Ingredients: 2 cups milk 1-1/2 cups medium grain or pearl rice 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1/2 stick unsalted butter or margarine peel of 1/2 lemon 1 cinnamon stick 1-2 tsp ground cinnamon

87 Steps: 1.Pour approximately 3 cups of water in a large pot and bring to a boil. When it begins to boil, add the rice. Reduce heat a bit and simmer for about 10 minutes. Turn off burner and allow rice to sit in pot of water. 2.Pour milk into another large pot and add sugar. Turn burner on low to medium heat. Stir until sugar is completely dissolved. Bring milk to a boil over medium heat, being careful that it does not boil over. While you are waiting for the milk to boil, drain the water from the rice. 3.Once the milk boils, add drained rice, butter, cinnamon stick and lemon peel. Allow to gently boil for about minutes, until rice is soft. Remove cinnamon stick and lemon peel. Remove from heat and pour rice pudding into a serving dish. Sprinkle the top with ground cinnamon. Allow to cool for 15 minutes before serving because the mixture retains the heat. 4.Arroz con leche can be served warm or cold. If you want to serve it cold, allow the rice mixture to cool down in the serving dish for 20 minutes, then refrigerate at least 1 hour. 5.In the region of Asturias in Northern Spain, this dish is served with a crust of caramelized sugar on top. The traditional method for forming the crust is to liberally sprinkle sugar on top, then place a very hot iron on top of the rice to caramelize or burn it. You can accomplish the same thing by placing it under the broiler for a few minutes after sprinkling the top with sugar.

88 “Flan de huevo” (Caramel custard) Ingredients 2 whole eggs 10 egg yolks 1 liter (4 cups) milk Peel of 1 lemon, in pieces 6 tablespoons sugar Caramelized sugar 8 tablespoons sugar

89 Steps 1 To make the caramelized sugar, heat sugar in an ovenproof (1 liter, 4 cups) plan mold, over low heat, stirring constantly. Cook until sugar has melted and is golden brown. Tilt pan to coat bottom and sides. Remove from heat and let cool for at least 30 minutes, tilting pan occasionally to coat sides. To make the custard, mix half of the milk with 3 tablespoons sugar and peel of 1 lemon. Cook slowly over low heat for 1/2 hour, stirring constantly. Set aside. 2 Remove lemon pieces and discard. In large bowl beat whole eggs and egg yolks lightly. (Egg shells can be saved and added later to water of the Baño María to prevent from splashing into flan while cooking). Blend in 3 tablespoons of sugar and remaining milk. 3 Gently add the boiled milk and stir. Pour custard mixture into mold on top of caramelized sugar. Place mold in pan of hot water (Baño María). The water should cover more than half of mold. Cook on top of stove over a medium flame for 30 minutes. Transfer to a preheated F (180 C) oven and continue cooking for another 30 minutes or until an inserted knife comes out clean. Immediately remove from water and cool, covered, at room temperature. 4 Refrigerate, covered, until ready to serve. Unmold by loosening sides of custard with a knife and place a serving plate over mold. Turn over on to plate.

90 “Leche Frita” (fried milk) Ingredients 1l milk 180ml olive oil 1 spoonful of sunflower oil 2 eggs 60 gr corn flour 60 gr of light flour 1 stick of cinnamon 120 gr sugar

91 Preparation 1.Dilute the flour together with the corn flour and sugar in 1/4l of milk. Boil the rest of the milk with the cinnamon stick for ten minutes and add it, after straining, into the paste made earlier. 2.Simmer the mixture on a low heat, without stopping stirring, for a period of 10 minutes. Put it on a tray greased with sunflower oil and allow it to cool. 3.Once the mixture is cold, cut it into rectangles of about 10 x 5cm, putting them into flour and beaten egg and frying them on a medium heat in the 2dl of olive oil. Dry off the excess oil and sprinkle them with sugar and ground cinnamon.

92 CURIOSITIES

93 Jamón Serrano peculiarities The pigs are often black, giving this supreme jamon its familiar name in Spain: pata negra, or black hoof. They are 14 to 20 months old when killed and weigh 160kg to 170kg. They have led a relatively long, calm life, ranging freely and eating well. This is the second point about the Iberian pigs: their diet. Iberico ham is graded in three categories according to the pigs' diet. From our point of view they start at luscious and range to the sublime: jamon iberico de pienso is fed entirely on grain; jamon iberico de recebo has a free-range diet of acorns, grain and pasture foraging and is fattened to its final 20kg to 30kg with grain; and jamon iberico de bellota, the pinnacle of Spanish pork, is fed in its final stage, from 90kg to 165kg, on acorns and natural pasture.

94 Eating 12 Grapes on New Year's Eve in Spain. For a long time, Spanish people have had a traditional custom of celebrating New Year's Eve. On the last day of the year, the 31st of December, they wait until twelve p.m. Everybody has to have twelve grapes ready to eat when the clock starts to chime. It is traditional to eat them as you hear the clock from Puerta del Sol in Madrid chiming. When it is midnight, each time the clock chimes, they put a grape in their mouth. By the time the clock has finished chiming, everybody has to have finished their grapes and the New Year starts, but hardly nobody ever finishes eating the grapes on time. This tradition started in Spain because one year when there was a big grape harvest, the king of Spain decided to give grapes to everybody to eat on New Year's Eve.

95 Turrón Turrón is a very old, traditional sweet of Moorish (Arabic) origin. Turrón has been a popular sweet for centuries, even outside Spain’s borders. It is said that the Moors invented turrón over 500 year ago in Jijona, a small town about 30 miles or so north of Alicante. Jijona’s economy is focused on the production of turrón and there is even a museum of turrón that chronicles the process and history of the sweet. In addition, it is located within the factory that makes both “El Lobo” and “1880” brands of turrón. If you are lucky enough to visit the museum from mid- June to mid-December, you can watch the turrón production from a balcony high above the factory floor. (For more information on the museum, please see the end of the article.) There are two traditional basic types of turrón. Soft Jijona or turrón blando, which is so smooth it has the consistency of peanut butter and hard Alicante or turrón duro, which is like a thick almond nougat candy, similar to peanut brittle. The wild flowers that bloom in the mountainsides all around the town of Jijona are food for the bees that produce the honey, which is such an important ingredient of turrón. The honey, together with the almonds from nearby orchards forms delicious turrón in the hands of artisan candy makers, called turroneros. In 1939 a Denomination of Origin for turrón from Jijona was created and in 1991 the rules of the denomination were revised.

96 Castillian Garlic Soup Story In Spain, it is common in northern areas and specially in Castilla. In rural places, Sopa de Ajo was taken some three hours after breakfast, to recover from hard work and cold weather. It used to be cooked using some types of meat or fat but today these two ingredients are not used any more. You can find it as a typical recipe cooked in Burgos where the winters are cold and soups and stews are eaten daily. Castilla is the "land of bread" and it is bought fresh daily. However, a Spanish cook would never serve it stale, so this recipe is a good way to use any stale bread that is left over from the day before meals.

97 OTHER RECIPES

98 LENTILS AT THE GARDENER STYLE Ingredients: ( 4 servings): 200 g. Lentils 50 g. Bacon 1 green pepper 2 carrots 2 ripe tomatoes 1 medium onion 1 leek 1 cube beef broth ½ dl. Olive oil salt water white pepper 4 medium potatoes

99 PEPARATION: - Put the lentils to soak the night before. - Wash and peel the carrots, the onion and the leek. - Wash an peel the potatoes. Wash the peppers well. - Wash the tomatoes and peel them as follows: make in incision in the shape of a cross in the centre of its top, dive them in boiling water for 30 seconds, remove them and remove the skin with a thin knife. - Cut all vegetables into very fine dices. - Cut the bacon into 1 cm cubes. Aside. - Heat olive oil in a pan of high walls and skip the vegetables at low heat for 2 or 3 minutes. - Add lentils and mix everything well. - Introduce the prepared water and add de beef broth cube crushed. - Season to taste. - Cook the stew at low heat for approximately 2 hours. - Serve in bowls, previously heated.

100 POTTAGE OF CHICK-PEAS WITH COLD FISH AND SPINACHS INGREDIENTS: 400g of codfish 300g of chick-peas 400g of spinach 2 onions 1 leek 1 carrot 1 small cup of olive oil salt

101 PREPARATION: Desalt the codfish in pieces and take out the bones. Soak in water during 24 hours, changing the water 3 times. Cook the chick-peas in water and salt, with a slightly fried leek, carrot and onions. Put some salt. Boil the spinach in a pan with water and salt during 5 minutes. Drain and cut. Put one frying-pan with oil and onion and cook aver a low heat, then salt the onions until brown. When the onions start to be brown, add the codfish and cook at low heat, the necessary time. When the chick-peas are boiled, drain and add the spinach and the codfish, and cook it slow heat during 2 or 3 minutes all together. Then serve it.

102 MEDITERRANEAN SALAD WIHT PASTA INGREDIENTS: 125gof mozzarella 80g of tuna in olive oil 12 black olives 1 tablespoon of capers 10 cherry tomatoes 1 teaspoonful of oregano 3 tablespoon of oil

103 PREPARATION: Boil the pasta with a lot of water, drain and empty water over. Cut the mozzarella cheese in dices and put them into a bowl; add the tuna, the olives cut, the cappers, the tomatoes, the oregano, salt and pepper. Dress the pasta with this mixture

104 MUSHROOMS SCRUMBLE INGREDIENTS: 500g of mushrooms 8 eggs ½ of onion 2 cloves of garlic 3 spoonfuls of olive oil 1 spoonful of parsley 1 pinch of white pepper

105 PREPARATION: Cut the onion and into the pieces, cut them into a frying pan with the three spoonfuls until the onion is transparent. Wash the mushrooms and cut them into pieces, put them into the frying pan and boil them for ten minutes.When they haven’t got any water season them. Beat the eggs, add the one pepper and put it into the frying pan with the mushrooms. Wait until they are set. Serve it freshly cooked.

106 VEGETABLES MASH INGREDIENTS: 3 spoonfuls of oil 1 spring onion 1 green pepper 1 leek 1 courgette 3potatoes 1 clove of garlic Salt

107 PREPARATION: 1. Fry the spring onion, the garlic, the green pepper and the leek. 2. When it’s fried add the courgette and the potatoes. Fry lightly for a few minutes. Add ½ litre of water and cook it during ¾ of an hour. 3. After that, beat with the mixer and add a bit of liquid cream.

108 MOUNTAIN SOUP INGREDIENTS: 50g macaroni 1 cabbage 100g onion 100g tomatoes 150g oil a pinch of salt 2 carrots 3 leeks

109 PREPARATION: Cut some water in a pan according to the quantity you want. Put the cabbage in the pan and boil it. Cut the carrots and the leeks into small pieces and put them into the pan. Add a pinch of salt. After half an hour adds the macaroni and the potatoes, you must peel them and cut them into squares. In another pan put the onions with oil to cook. When the onions are golden, add the tomatoes. Add the onions to the tomatoes and the macaroni, potatoes, etc. Get them all to boil. It‘s ready to serve.

110 GALLEGO BROTH (4-5people) INGREDIENTS: - 1 pork tail - 1 piece of bacon salt - 1 pig’s chop - 1kg of salted lacon - ½ kg pork chop - 4 sausages - 1/2kg chick peas - Half kg of beef - Half chicken - 1 cabbage - 8 peeled potatoes - Olive oil

111 PREPARATION: Boil the hard ingredients in a pressure cooker for about 3 quarters of an hour. That is: the pork chop, the pig’s ear, the sausages and the chick peas (previously soaked in water for 8 hours). When is cook, let it cold and take out the fat over. Add the rest of the ingredients and cook them all for about a quarter of an hour more. Ready serve! PRESENTATION: Serve the chick peas and vegetables as a first course and the meat as a second course


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