Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Infections - myths and reality"— Presentation transcript:
1Sexually Transmitted Infections - myths and reality Hello and welcomeWe are going to do a session on STIs , look at some myths and reality and give some key messages.Sexually Transmitted Infections - myths and reality
2SEAN SARAH Doesn’t feel comfortable With her body Doesn’t know how to use a condomCommunicationAbout sex difficultFriends say using aCondom makes sexLess enjoyableDoesn’t know howTo use acondomNowhere to havesexDrinks a lot whichAffects his abilityTo practice safersexHer friends hateSeanThinks “other people”Get sexually transmittedinfectionsScared Sean will endThe relationship if sheRefuses to have sexDon’t have practicalKnowledge to make saferSex easyFriends all brag aboutTheir exploitsDoesn’t feel good aboutHerself. Lacks confidence,Embarrassed to talk toSean about sexUnprepared for sexDon’t have anyCondomsDoesn’t think ahead.Wants a good timeFamily are Catholic.Pressures on Sarah notTo have sexOutside marriage
3What I’ll be talking about Who I am and what I doWhat are sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?Why are STIs important?Who gets STIs?How can you avoid getting an STI?Myths about STIsIntroduce yourself and your roleREAD slide what the session may include :Also if time there will be an interactive workshop on transmission and some simple quizzes and case studies
4Like to start and finish with the same slide We are not mystic – we don’t know if someone has an STI by looking at them – we don’t always know if we have an STI ourselves.In new sexual relationships we should always use condoms – if want to stop using them -both get tested for STIs – remain monogamous.
5What are STIs?Germs (bacteria, protozoans and viruses) spread by ‘sexual contact’.Name someSTIs are Germs – bacteria, protozoans (beasties) and viruses.Get the audience to shout outChlamydia, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, NSU (non specific urethritis), Pubic Lice, Trichomoniasis or Trich (another beastie).Thrush can be transmitted sexually but you can also get Thrush from wearing tight underwear , washing with perfumed products, change of climate or due to pregnancy for examples. So Thrush is not a true STI.List them all if the audience don’t get them allMake the point that there are lots of STIs
6What does sexual contact mean? Increasing chance of catching an infectionAnal sexVaginal sexOral sexTouching someone elses genitals with your genitals.Mutual masturbationSexual Contact is not only about penetrative sexOral sex and close sexual contact and masturbation can also be risky especially if sexual fluids are involved.
7Why are STIs important?The majority of people who have an STI will have no symptomsLeft untreated STIs may cause problems with your reproductive systems and stop you having children.The Key Message here is:You can have absolutely NO Symptoms from an STISTIs left untreated - and in the long term – may cause infertility in both males and females
8Some symptoms of STIs Name some? No symptomsDischarge from the penis or vaginaGenital ulcerationBleeding between periodsAbdominal painTesticular painLumps appearing on the skinHowever if you are LUCKY enough to get a symptom or symptoms that may make you go to a doctor –What could they be?Get the audience to shout out some symptomsThen flash up the most common symptomsSome symptoms may go away – but the STI will not have gone away!Repeat the key message that there can be NO symptoms from an STI
9Why are STIs important?They are getting more common
103 Most Common STIsChlamydiaGenital HerpesGenital Warts
11Explain that this slide is from ARI labs. All the STI tests in Grampian go through the ARI Laboratories.This just shows that Chlamydia is really common compared to HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea and Trich.With up to 2,000 new cases of Chlamydia every year.Before next slide ask the audience –Who is at most risk of Chlamydia?Is it Injecting Drug Users, Sex Industry Workers, Homeless People, etc?Wait for answer – then CLICK on next slide
12The younger you start to have sex the more likely you are to catch an infection The high risk group for Chlamydia are the age 15 – 24 year olds.This is because this group is more sexually active , have more sexual partners and also they do not have the knowledge and skills to protect themselves.The younger you start to have sex the more likely you are to catch an infection.Girls tend to go to health services more than boys – that’s why more girls positive – key point - Chlamydia is not a female only infection.
13Hepatitis C infection in Grampian – not commonly spread sexually – most common amongst Injecting Drug Users – about 130 cases per yearHepatitis B infection – a sexually transmitted infection- about 60 new cases in 2009HIV – a sexually transmitted infection- about 39 – 45 cases per yearAll of these bloodborne viruses are on the increase
14Scotland – 6,534 Grampian - 459 (December 2010) 740 000 1.7 million Adults and Children Estimated to be Living with HIV 2010 – 33 million (WHO)Eastern Europe & Central Asia1.7 millionWestern EuropeNorth America1.4East Asia & PacificNorth Africa& Middle EastCaribbeanSouth& South-East Asia7.8 millionSub-Saharan Africa24.7 millionLatin America1.7millionAustralia& New Zealand81 000Discuss HIV as a world wide problemSome parts of Africa have as many as 16,000 new cases per day – 1,600 are children born with HIV every dayScotland has a total of 6,534 that we know ofGrampian has a cumulative total of 459 cases up to December 2010Scotland – 6,534Grampian (December 2010)
15How is HIV passed on-Unprotected Sex Risk - HighThis is the mostcommon way it ispassed on inGrampianUnprotected sex between heterosexual couples is the most common way it is passed onRisk oral sex lowBarrier methods of contraceptive necessary
16Who gets STIs?Anyone who is sexually active can get an STI if they do not protect themselves carefullyASK – who gets STIs?Then click as key message
17How to catch and spread an STI Have sex with lots of peopleDon’t use a condomIgnore symptomsDon’t get a check-upREAD slideAnd say if you are doing any of the above then you have put yourself at risk of catching and spreading an STI
18HOW MANY PEOPLE DID YOU SAY YOU’D SLEPT WITH? ASK – the audience – does the lady at the bottom who has just slept with Johnny need an STI test??Yes she does as Johnny and her have been having unprotected sex and Johnny has had lots of previous partners.She may have any number of STIs that anyone on that slide has !WHY, JUST THE ONE!!
19No such thing as SAFE sex so we tend to talk about SAFER sex. Only way to be completely safe is to completely abstain from sex altogether or lock yourself in a cupboard and throw the key away!So we will look at how to make it SAFER
20How not to catch or spread an STI Decide if you really want to have sex with this person. (and don’t get so drunk that you can’t decide!).You’ll have a better time if you’ve no regrets the next dayIf you have sex, consider lower-risk sexual contact - eg masturbation.If you’re going to have vaginal, oral or anal sex use a condom/dental dam. (and learn how to use one first!)If you’re going to stop using condoms get an STI screen first.If you don’t know what you did last night – then you really don’t know what you did !!It’s not good to regret things and you can’t just stick you head in the sand and try to forget regretful thingsTake responsibility for your actions and get emergency contraception and an STI test.Masturbation is less risky than unprotected penetrative sex and remember to wash your hands of sexual fluidsUse condoms and dental dams alwaysIf you want to stop using condoms in your relationship – then both of you get an STI screen – get treated if you have an STI – then remain monogamous.
21Where to get free condoms Family planning clinicGenitourinary medicine clinicGPsPharmaciesHealthpointsOther community agencies?EmployerASK where can you get condoms FREE?Trainer to be knowledgeable of the local agencies/areas that provide the free condom distribution service
22Confidentiality Testing Where can you go for an STI test? The trainer to be knowledgeable of the local testing sites
23Where to get STI tests Your GP Hospital GUM clinic rapid access if symptomsFamily planning clinicsTrainer to know the local testing sites
24What does a test for STIs involve? Men - a very small swab from the end of the penis. (or a urine specimen if just having a chlamydia test)Women – lower vaginal swabs (self taken if just having a chlamydia test)Both - a blood specimen (if having tests for syphilis or HIV, HBV or HCV)Take along and show the lower vaginal swabs that are used in clinicsHIV, Hepatitis |B and Syphilis are viruses that will require a blood test for diagnosis
25STI myths You’d know if you had one. You could tell if someone else had oneLets look at some Myths and reality!ASK TRUE or FALSE?
2690% of women and 70% of men with Chlamydia have no symptoms Myth – FalseMost men and most women will have no symptoms of Chlamydia
28RealityA test for chlamydia can be as easy as peeing into a bottle
29STI mythsIf I leave it alone it will go away?Yes or NO?
30Reality Most STIs need treatment to be cured Usually treatment is simple (and treatment is free at a GUM clinic)Treatments for most STIs are usually antibiotics.Wart creams for wartsHepatitis treatments can help stabilise your liverHIV treatments needs to be taken for life but can stabilise your immune system
31STI mythsIf I go for tests everyone will know?Will they?
32Reality It’s always good to let your partner know if you have symptoms Tests at a GUM clinic are confidential and your GP, 3rd cousin twice removed will not be told.Your sexual partner(s) may be need to be notified so that you don’t become re-infected.
33STI mythsCondoms don’t work - they have holes in them that viruses can go through
34Reality Condoms only have one hole! Condoms are very effective in preventing you from getting - HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydiaCondoms are less good at preventing you from getting warts or herpes. (infection doesn’t come out of the end of the penis)Condoms only have one hole and that is where you put your penis!Close sexual contact can cause warts and herpes from skin shedding!
35CarolineShe’s had a few boyfriends in the past. On the pill, ‘often’ uses condoms.She meets…Case Study 1
36Rak He has just finished with a woman he was going out with for 1yr. They start going out, start having sex with condoms.He wants to stop using condoms.
38Both should get a check up at their GP or GUM. Then they can stop using condoms.
39Rachel What would you do? She’s 16. She was at a party on Sunday, drank 9 Bacardis and had sex with erm Fraser?Not on the pill. Doesn’t think he used a condom.Now regrets the whole thingWhat would you do?Case Study 2
40For now - she will probably need emergency contraception Get from GP, family planning, GUM, pharmaciesWill need to consider longer-term contraception too.She should get tests for STIsShe should drink less in the future - stay in control - do what she wants and have no regrets.Has she regretted sex before?She should insist on condom use - no condom, no sex.
42Summary STIs are v common some of you will have one now and not know itcondoms prevent transmission of most STIsKey messages
43To contact any Grampian Sexual Health Services phone:0845 337 9900
44Text sexinfo to 80182 SEXINFO For nearest Emergency Contraception serviceFor nearest Long term Contraception serviceFor nearest STI testing Service
45Questions often askedWill I know if I am infected with HIV or any STI?Where can I get a test?Will anyone know if I go for a test?What will they do at the clinic?Where can I get more information and advice?
50The Condom 1350BC sheaths as protection against infection, injury and insect bitesThe condom offer the most reliable protection against infection during intercourse and also effective form of contraceptionCondoms have been around since at least 1350BC when ancient Egyptian tribesmen used sheaths as protection against infection, injury and insect bitesThe first evidence of the condom in Europe was in cave paintings dating back to 100AdIn the 16C an Italian claimed to have made a linen condom to protect against Syphilisin the 1700’s condom shops appeared made for animal gut evidence that Casanova used these to prevent pregnancyRubber was latter discovered to work and followed by latex in the 1930’s and started being produced commercially in the 1950’sNow can for latex allergies polyurethan male condoms these are also thinner therefore increase sensation also can use oil based lub on them100AD Europe
64flared, straight, plain, contoured Male CondomstrengthsflavourscoloursizetexturesThe male condom was 1st on the scene advanced from these daysThe male condom certainly is not boring different colours sizes shapes textures when you get free condoms these ones are the regular alternativesSamples have a look applicator / types / lubflavors pina coladaalthough different sizes these will holdtextures ribbedShapes:flared, straight, plain, contoured
65Condom Types Male condom Dental dams Femidom Nowadays many different types the most common is the male condombut also on the seen areDental Dams are for oral sexFemale condom the Femidom – less than 1% of the population use them as not so effective as male condomFemidom
66Some handy hints when dealing with condoms Both partners should learn how to put on and take off a condom properly
67Don’t blow, stretch or unroll the condom before use
72Keep in a cool place avoid heat or direct sunlight
73Using Condoms read instructions beware of sharp nails puncturing condomstake care not to damage on openingapply when penis is erect, before contactdo not pull onroll back foreskinpinch end and hold onto rimafter use, hold rim during removaltwist and disposeuse water based lubricants98% effective if used correctly many reasons for it notThere are two reasons for condoms failing:I have an applicator if you want to try it outproduct failure poor quality condoms or condoms which are damageduser failure not following the instructions unfamiliarity and poor techniqueRead and follow the instructionsbeware of sharp fingernails and jewelry puncturing condomsbe careful not to damage the condom when opening the wrapperalways put the condom on as soon as the penis is erect but before there is any contact with the genital areamake sure air is squeezed out of its top before rolling the condom ondo not put it on like a sockif the user is uncut/uncircumcised roll back foreskin prior to putting on it is advisable to hold onto the rim of the condom when enteringafter the user has ejaculated but before erection is completely lost hold the condom rim firmly around the penis while it is withdrawntwist the condom and dispose of appropriately - use only water based lubricants such as KY Jelly, others may damage the rubber
74SEAN SARAH Doesn’t feel comfortable With her body Doesn’t know how to use a condomCommunicationAbout sex difficultFriends say using aCondom makes sexLess enjoyableDoesn’t know howTo use acondomNowhere to havesexDrinks a lot whichAffects his abilityTo practice safersexHer friends hateSeanThinks “other people”Get sexually transmittedinfectionsScared Sean will endThe relationship if sheRefuses to have sexDon’t have practicalKnowledge to make saferSex easyFriends all brag aboutTheir exploitsDoesn’t feel good aboutHerself. Lacks confidence,Embarrassed to talk toSean about sexUnprepared for sexDon’t have anyCondomsDoesn’t think ahead.Wants a good timeFamily are Catholic.Pressures on Sarah notTo have sexOutside marriage
75Like to start and finish with the same slide We are not mystic – we don’t know if someone has an STI by looking at them – we don’t always know if we have an STI ourselves.In new sexual relationships we should always use condoms – if want to stop using them -both get tested for STIs – remain monogamous.