Presentation on theme: "Find the Citation Error: A Quick Quiz on APA Style UW School of Social Work."— Presentation transcript:
Find the Citation Error: A Quick Quiz on APA Style UW School of Social Work
Directions All of the following slides marked, “Catch the Error,” break one or more APA citation rule. See if you can find the error(s), and then revise the citation so that it is in conformity with APA style. When you think you have corrected the error, move on to the next slide marked, “Revised,” and see if you revised the citation correctly.
Catch the Error #1 Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames (2002, p. 15).
Revised Hollingshead (2000) measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames. Explanation: The year comes after the researcher’s name. No page number is needed if there is no direct quote.
Catch the Error #2 Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong and Tuttle 2005).
Revised Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong & Tuttle, 2005). Explanation: Use an ampersand (&) when citing parenthetically and put a comma between author(s) and year of publication.
Catch the Error #3 Duffy & Petronius (2002, p. 23) found that none of the subjects showed improvement.
Revised Duffy and Petronius (2002) found that none of the subjects showed improvement. Explanation: Use “and” -- not ampersand -- when citing authors outside of parentheses. No page number needed since there was no direct quote.
Catch the Error #4 Boyle (1998, 1998, 1998) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. [Assume the three studies were done in 1998 and each was published separately that year.]
Revised Boyle (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study will be designated by a different letter – a, b, c, etc. Items are listed in the reference section alphabetically by title.
Catch the Error #5 Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.”
Revision Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group” (p. 12). Explanation: Since a direct quote was used, a page number must be provided after the quote.
Catch the Error #6 When contacted, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (phone call, 2005).
Revised When contacted, C. S. Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (personal communication, December 1, 2005). Explanation: Use “personal communication” and exact date when citing telephone calls, letters, memos, personal interviews, etc. You do not need to put this in the References section since the data is non-recoverable.
Catch the Error #7 Bretschneider, John Garrett and McCoy, Nancy Lewis, Sexual Interest and Behavior in Healthy Year-Olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 14, pp
Revised Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual interest and behavior in healthy year-olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, Explanation: 1) only initials for first names; 2) year in parentheses followed by period; 3) lower case in article title; 4) italicize journal name and capitalize first letters; 5) no “Vol.,” just italicize; 6) no “pp.”; 7) hanging indent.
Catch the Error #8 Hashimoto, Thomas. (March 13, 2000, p. 23). Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol. 199.
Revised Hashimoto, T. (2000, March 13). Seeing red in November. Newsweek, 199, 23. Explanation: Only initial for first name. Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in parentheses. Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma, volume number italicized, then page number(s). Hanging indent,
Catch the Error #9 Pinkerton (originally published in 1844, reprinted in 2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates (400 B.C.) felt the same way.
Revised Pinkerton (1844/2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates (trans. 1988) felt the same way. Explanation: If original year of publication is known, list that first, followed by slash and year of publication you used. For classical works, cite the translation year.
Catch the Error #10 Most experts believed the effects would be disastrous (NIMH 2000). For example, 8 of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after thirty-six hours. (Assume NIMH is introduced here for the first time.)
Revised Most experts believed the effects will be disastrous (National Institutes of Mental Health [NIMH], 2000). For example, eight of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after 36 hours. Explanation: Number and abbreviation rules.
The Latest Edition American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Reminders You don’t have to memorize all the rules. There are hundreds of APA style rules and lots of exceptions to the rules. Use reference sheets. If you are planning to write scholarly papers for publication, get the book. Take it in slowly, not all at once. (Preserve your sanity.) Have writing consultant review for conformity to APA style.