3U.S. inflation and its trend, 1960-2006 0%3%6%9%12%15%1960196519701975198019851990199520002005% change in CPI from 12 months earlierlong-run trend
4Money: Functionsmedium of exchangestore of valueunit of account
5Money: Types 1. fiat money 2. commodity money has no intrinsic value example: paper currency2. commodity moneyhas intrinsic valueexamples: gold coins, cigarettes in P.O.W. camps
6The Federal Reserve Building Washington, DC The central bankThe Federal Reserve Building Washington, DCIn the U.S., the central bank is called the Federal Reserve (“the Fed”).Open Market Operations are the primary monetary policy tool
7Money supply measures, July 2009 symbolassets includedamount ($ billions)$853CurrencyC$1655C + demand deposits, travelers’ checks, other checkable depositsM1$8349M1 + small time deposits, savings deposits, money market mutual funds, money market deposit accountsM2
8The Quantity Theory of Money A simple theory linking the inflation rate to the growth rate of the money supply.David HumeMilton Friedman
9The quantity equation assumes V is constant & exogenous With V constant, the money supply determines nominal GDP: (P Y )Real GDP is determined by the economy’s supplies of K and L and the production functionM, therefore, determines the price level, P
10The quantity theory of money The quantity equation in growth rates:
11The quantity theory of money (Greek letter “pi”) denotes the inflation rate:The result from the preceding slide was:Solve this result for to get
12The quantity theory of money Normal economic growth requires a certain amount of money supply growth to facilitate the growth in transactions.Money growth in excess of this amount leads to inflation.
13The quantity theory of money Y/Y depends on growth in the factors of production and on technological progress (all of which we take as given, for now).Hence, the Quantity Theory predicts a one-for-one relation between changes in the money growth rate and changes in the inflation rate.
14Confronting the quantity theory with data The quantity theory of money implies1. countries with higher money growth rates should have higher inflation rates.2. the long-run trend behavior of a country’s inflation should be similar to the long-run trend in the country’s money growth rate.Are the data consistent with these implications?
15International data on inflation and money growth TurkeyEcuadorIndonesiaBelarusArgentinaU.S.SwitzerlandSingapore
16U.S. inflation and money growth, 1960-2006 0%3%6%9%12%15%1960196519701975198019851990199520002005Over the long run, the inflation and money growth rates move together, as the quantity theory predicts.M2 growth rateinflation rate
17Inflation and interest rates Nominal interest rate, i not adjusted for inflationReal interest rate, r adjusted for inflation: r = i
18The Fisher effect The Fisher equation: i = r + Chap 3: S = I determines r .Hence, an increase in causes an equal increase in i.This one-for-one relationship is called the Fisher effect.Note that S and I are real variables. In chapter 3, we learned about the factors that determine S and I. These factors did not include the money supply, velocity, inflation, or other nominal variables.Hence, in the classical (long-run) theory we are learning, changes in money growth or inflation do not affect the real interest rate. This is why there’s a one-for-one relationship between changes in the inflation rate and changes in the nominal interest rate.(Again, the Fisher effect does not imply that the nominal interest rate EQUALS the inflation rate. It implies that CHANGES in the nominal interest rate equal CHANGES in the inflation rate, given a constant value of the real interest rate.)Irving Fisher
19Inflation and nominal interest rates in the U.S., 1955-2006 percent per year15nominal interest rate105inflation rate-519551960196519701975198019851990199520002005
20Inflation and nominal interest rates across countries RomaniaZimbabweBrazilBulgariaIsraelGermanyU.S.Switzerland
21Exercise:Suppose V is constant, M is growing 5% per year, Y is growing 2% per year, and r = 4.a. Solve for i.b. If the Fed increases the money growth rate by 2 percentage points per year, find i.c. Suppose the growth rate of Y falls to 1% per year.What will happen to ?What must the Fed do if it wishes to keep constant?
22Answers---the details: V is constant, M grows 5% per year, Y grows 2% per year, r = 4.a. First, find = 5 2 = 3.Then, find i = r + = = 7.b. i = 2, same as the increase in the money growth rate.c. If the Fed does nothing, = 1.To prevent inflation from rising, Fed must reduce the money growth rate by 1 percentage point per year.Answers---the details:a. First, we need to find . Constant velocity implies = (M/M) - (Y/Y) = = 3. Then, i = r + = = 7.b. Changes in the money growth rate do not affect real GDP or its growth rate. So, a two-point increase in money growth causes a two-point increase in inflation. According to the Fisher effect, the nominal interest rate should rise by the increase in inflation: two points (from i=7 to i=9).c. = (M/M) - (Y/Y). If (Y/Y) falls by 1 point, then will increase by 1 point; the Fed can prevent this by reducing (M/M) by 1 point. Intuition: With slower growth in the economy, the volume of transactions will be growing more slowly, which means that the need for new money will grow more slowly.
23The money demand function (M/P )d = real money demand, dependsnegatively on ii is the opp. cost of holding moneypositively on Yhigher Y more spending so, need more money(“L” is used for the money demand function because money is the most liquid asset.)An increase in the nominal interest rate represents the increase in the opportunity cost of holding money rather than bonds, and would motivate the typical consumer to hold less of his wealth in the form of money, and more in the form of bonds (or other interest-earning assets).An increase in real income (other things equal) causes an increase in the consumer’s consumption and therefore spending. To facilitate this extra spending, the consumer will require more money. Thus, the consumer would like a larger fraction of his wealth to be in the form of money (rather than bonds, etc). This might involve redeeming some of his bonds. Or it might simply involve holding the additional income in the form of money rather than putting it into bonds.
24The money demand function When people are deciding whether to hold money or bonds, they don’t know what inflation will turn out to be.Hence, the nominal interest rate relevant for money demand is r + e.
25The supply of real money balances EquilibriumThe supply of real money balancesReal money demand
26What determines what variable how determined (in the long run) M exogenous (the Fed)r adjusts to make S = IYP adjusts to make
27Why is inflation bad?What costs does inflation impose on society? List all the ones you can think of.Focus on the long run.
28A common misperception Common misperception: inflation reduces real wagesThis is true only in the short run, when nominal wages are fixed by contracts.(Chap. 3) In the long run, the real wage is determined by labor supply and the marginal product of labor, not the price level or inflation rate.Consider the data…
29Average hourly earnings and the CPI, 1964-2006 $20250$18$16200$14$12150hourly wage$10CPI ( = 100)$8100First, note that the CPI has risen tremendously over the past 40 years.However, nominal wages have risen by a roughly similar magnitude.If the common misperception were true, then the real wage should show exactly the opposite behavior as the CPI. It doesn’t. The real wage is not constant - it varies within the range of $15 to $19 - but there is no downward trend in the real wage over the long term.Note: We wouldn’t expect the real wage to be constant over the long run – we would expect it to change in response to shifts in the labor supply and MPL curves.source: BLSObtained from:$6CPI (right scale)$450wage in current dollars$2wage in 2006 dollars$019641970197619821988199420002006
30The classical view of inflation The classical view: A change in the price level is merely a change in the units of measurement.So why, then, is inflation a social problem?
31The social costs of inflation …fall into two categories:1. costs when inflation is expected2. costs when inflation is different than people had expected
33The cost of unexpected inflation: Arbitrary redistribution of purchasing powerEx: From lenders to borrowersIncreased uncertainty
34One benefit of inflation Nominal wages are rarely reduced, even when the equilibrium real wage falls. This hinders labor market clearing.Inflation allows the real wages to reach equilibrium levels without nominal wage cuts.Therefore, moderate inflation improves the functioning of labor markets.
35Hyperinflation def: 50% per month All the costs of moderate inflation described above become HUGE under hyperinflation.Money ceases to function as a store of value, and may not serve its other functions (unit of account, medium of exchange).People may conduct transactions with barter or a stable foreign currency.
38What causes hyperinflation? Hyperinflation is caused by excessive money supply growth:When the central bank prints money, the price level rises.If it prints money rapidly enough, the result is hyperinflation.
39A few examples of hyperinflation money growth (%)inflation (%)Israel,295275Poland,344400Brazil,13501323Argentina,12641912Peru,29743849Nicaragua,49915261Bolivia,42086515
40Why governments create hyperinflation When a government cannot raise taxes or sell bonds,it must finance spending increases by printing money.In theory, the solution to hyperinflation is simple: stop printing money.In the real world, this requires drastic and painful fiscal restraint.
41The Classical Dichotomy Real variables: Measured in physical units – quantities and relative prices, for example:quantity of output producedreal wage: output earned per hour of workreal interest rate: output earned in the future by lending one unit of output todayNominal variables: Measured in money units, e.g.,nominal wage: Dollars per hour of work.nominal interest rate: Dollars earned in future by lending one dollar today.the price level: The amount of dollars needed to buy a representative basket of goods.
42The Classical Dichotomy Note: Real variables were explained in Chap 3, nominal ones in Chapter 4.Classical dichotomy: the theoretical separation of real and nominal variables in the classical model, which implies nominal variables do not affect real variables.Neutrality of money: Changes in the money supply do not affect real variables.In the real world, money is approximately neutral in the long run.