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How Investing Works START INVESTING NOW TO REAP THE BENEFITS
It costs how much? I remember when ____ used to cost only $____. 2©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Preview Today we will answer these questions: When should I start investing? What are some guidelines to follow when investing? How do I buy stock? Use what you learn today to make decisions about stock investments. 3©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Inflation 4©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Time Value of Money (TMV) Yesterday’s T oday’s Tomorrow’s 5©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Pay Raise for Whitney Whitney currently earns $7.25 an hour working part time. During her performance review meeting her supervisor informed her that she has earned a $.50 increase in hourly pay. Is Whitney’s wage increase enough to keep up with inflation? What is the minimum increase per hour she needs to at least match the average annual rate of inflation at three percent? ©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works6
Pay Raise for Derrick Justin’s older brother, Derrick, now earns an annual salary of $28,080. He wants to ask about a raise at his next performance review. What is the minimum amount of salary increase Derrick should request to keep up with the average annual rate of inflation? ©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works7
Invest Now or Later? Which is better? A. Start investing a little now. B. Wait a while to invest more later. 8©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Reasons to Invest An income investment provides expected earnings, usually in predictable amounts. Earned interest – payment received in return for use of your money Dividends – share of profits some companies pay to their stockholders Rent payments – received from people or companies in return for using your property Growth investments are purchased because of the potential that the value will increase over time; an unpredictable amount of money is received when the investment is sold. Real estate Business Crops Precious metals ©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works9
Stock Talk Businesses sell shares of stock to raise money to run the business. Someone who buys stock owns a portion of a business, depending upon how many shares are bought. A shareholder doesn’t take on responsibilities of running the company, but a company employee might happen to be a shareholder. A shareholder is allowed one vote per share when electing board members at shareholder meetings. Company management might decide to share part of the profits by paying dividends to shareholders (cash or shares of stock). The price of stock shares varies based on what people are willing to pay. Each stock has a unique ticker symbol (abbreviated name for lists). 10©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works Guess the name of these four companies: GE NFLX F DPS
How to Buy Stock 11©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works Select Broker Deposit Cash to open a brokerage account Decide what you want to buy (or sell) Place bid (or ask ) order with broker to buy (or sell) quantity at a certain price. Place order for broker to complete trade through an exchange Pay transaction fee to broker at time of buy (or sell) Pay attention to stock news and price Keep record of buy (or sell) for tax reporting
Pick a Stock to Study 12©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works What do you like? Buy? Use? What products and industries are familiar to you? What do consumers need and use? What are industry trends?
Stock Study Do your own homework. Know what you are buying. Study company data and news to answer these questions: – What is the current “state of affairs”? – Are there any “red flags” that indicate the company has issues? – Does the company have a record of consistent growth? (earnings per share, revenue, dividends) – Is the company making money? – Can the company cover its debt? – How does the company compare with competitors? – How does the company compare with industry trends? – How does the current price compare with recent trends? Disclaimer: The basic guidelines offered here are presented to help get you started on your own stock study and do not guarantee positive results. You are encouraged to continually learn more about investing and seek professional guidance as you engage in investing decisions. 13©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
Challenge Write an article or news report script to help middle school students learn about the value of saving and investing. Include a Top 5 list of tips for saving and investing. 14©2012 National Endowment for Financial Education | Lesson 4-2: How Investing Works
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