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Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools

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1 Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools
Critical Thinking Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools

2 What it is not— Examples of people who don’t think critically What it is- Examples of critical thinkers

3 What does it mean to be educated?

4 Activated Knowledge Accurate information that can be used to gain more knowledge Mathematical principles Scientific method Principles of critical thinking Paul

5 Am I a critical thinker? Stage 1 - Unreflective Thinker
Egocentric—and unaware Dismiss ideas we don’t agree with Don’t know what we don’t know Stage 2 – Challenged Thinker Strives to analyze thinking Understands how concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, and points of view form thinking Paul

6 Recognizes the qualities of sound thinking: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness
May engage in self-deception: “If everyone would think clearly like me, this would be a fine world.” The Beginning Thinker Checks information for accuracy and relevance Recognizes assumptions guiding inferences Identifies prejudicial and biased beliefs, unjustifiable conclusions, misused words, and missed implications Analyzes the logic of situations and problems Expresses clear and precise questions Paul

7 Stage 4 – The Practicing Thinker Stage 5 – The Advanced Thinker
Stage 6 – The Master Thinker Paul

8 Habits of Mind Arthur L. Costa & Bena Kallick

9 Habits of Mind Persisting
Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision Managing impulsivity Gathering data through all the senses Listening with understanding and empathy Creating, imagining, innovating Thinking flexibly Responding with wonderment and awe

10 Habits of Mind (cont) Thinking about thinking Taking responsible risks
Striving for accuracy Finding humor Questioning and posing problems Thinking interdependently Applying past knowledge to new situations Remaining open to continuous learning

11 Strategies for developing critical thinkers
Engage students in reading, writing, speaking Empower students to evaluate their own reading, writing, speaking Think out loud to model skilled thinking for students Compare and contrast different points of view Encourage students to question Assign a daily notetaker or notetaker team Assign a daily researcher or researcher team

12 Concepts “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” (Shakespeare) Using precise language Clever – Cunning Selfish – Self-motivated Power – Control Believe – Know Love – Romance Socialize – Educate Friend -- Colleague Paul

13 Concepts Recognizing socially conditioned meanings Capitalism
Socialism Communism Paul

14 Testing Information To what extent could I test the truth of this claim by direct experience? How does the person who advances this claim support it? Is there a definite system or procedure for assessing claims of this sort? Does the acceptance of this information advance the vested interest of the person or group asserting it? Paul

15 Clarity Say what you mean, mean what you say.
"What can be done about the education system in America?“ Could you give me an example Paul

16 Accuracy How could we find out if that is true?
Can it be verified by other sources? On the Web, look for hints in the URL (whois lookup) On a long URL, delete to the first slash November

17 Precision Can you give more details. “My daughter has a fever.”
“My computer doesn’t work.” “Do you know anyone who writes grants for education?” “Do you have any books in this library?” Paul

18 Relevance A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise…but irrelevant. “I spent 14.6 hours preparing my elementary library budget, so I should be funded at the full level.” Public figures answering questions at a press conference. How does this help us with the issue at hand? Paul

19 Depth Does the answer address the complexities of the question?
“Just say no” “God said it, I believe it, that settles it.” Is it dealing with the most significant factors? Paul

20 Breadth Is there another way to look at this question?
Do we need to consider another point of view? Paul

21 Logic How does that follow? Are these statements contradictory?
Don’t confuse correlation with causation Paul

22 Get “REAL” Read the URL Examine the Content
Ask about the author and owner Look at the Links Link: November

23 SMITH (thanks Lee!) Source Message Intent Techniques
How do they want me to respond

24 Questions that stimulate thinking
Open-ended questions: What are your reactions to this morning’s Keynote speaker? What aspects of this unit are of interest to you? What are your reactions to what you just heard? Paul

25 Information-seeking Questions
Diagnostic Questions What is really rewarded in this classroom? What conclusions did you draw from this data? Information-seeking Questions What are the factors that influence student engagement? Paul

26 Challenge (testing) Questions
Why do you believe that? What evidence supports your conclusion? What arguments might be developed to counter that point of view? Paul

27 Action Questions What needs to be done to address this problem?
Be specific Ask someone who has the ability to help Paul

28 Questions on priority and sequence
Given limited resources, what is the first step to be taken? The second? The third? Paul

29 Hypothetical Questions
Prediction Questions If your conclusions are correct, what will be our situation tomorrow? In 5 years? In 20 years? Hypothetical Questions What if Henry Ford’s gasoline engine hadn’t become the standard automobile engine? What if FDR had not initiated the New Deal? Paul

30 Questions of extension
For your grandchildren, what are the implications of your conclusions about the issue of climate change? Questions of generalization Based on our exploration of critical thinking, what do you believe are the major barriers to teaching critical thinking in your classroom? Paul

31 “For to say, that a blind custom of obedience should be a surer obligation than duty taught and understood; it is to affirm, that a blind man may tread surer by a guide than a seeing man can by a light.” Sir Francis Bacon. The Advancement of Learning.

32 Suggested Resources Costa, Arthur and Bena Kallick. Leading and Learning with Habits of Mind. ASCD Foundation for Critical Thinking SIRS Researcher (subscription database) The Question Mark

33 Resources (cont’d) November, Alan. Web Literacy for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008. Paul, Richard. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Personal and Professional Life. FT Press, 2002.

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