2PENDAHULUANTop-Down vs. Bottom-Up AuditsImportant Decisions About Audit EvidenceSpecific Audit Objectives and Audit EvidenceAudit Evidence, Corroborating Information, and Audit ProceduresElectronic Data Processing and Audit ProceduresAudit ProgramsWorking Papers
3TOP-DOWN VS BUTTOM-UP AUDIT Top-down audit evidence focuses the auditor’s attention on obtaining an understanding of:The business and industry,Management’s goals and objectives,How management uses its resources to attain those goals,The organization’s competitive advantage in the marketplace,Core business processes, andThe earnings and cash flow that result.
4TOP-DOWN VS BUTTOM-UP AUDIT Bottom-up audit evidence focuses on directly testing:Transactions,Account balances, andThe systems that record the transactions and resulting account balances.
6KEPUTUSAN TERKAIT BUKTI AUDIT When planning the audit, the auditor must make 4 important decisions about scope and conduct of the audit. These include:1. The nature of tests to be performed2. The timing of tests to be performed3. The extent of tests to be performed4. The assignment of staff to perform audit tests
7Five Management Assertions (GAAS) Existence and Occurrence TUJUAN KHUSUS AUDITFive Management Assertions (GAAS)Existence and OccurrenceCompletenessRights and ObligationsValuation or AllocationPresentation and Disclosure
18Terms Types of Evidence PROSEDUR AUDITTermsTypes of EvidenceExamineDocumentationScanAnalytical proceduresReadDocumentationComputeAnalytical proceduresRecomputeReperformanceFootReperformance
19Terms Types of Evidence PROSEDUR AUDITTermsTypes of EvidenceTraceDocumentationCompareDocumentationCountPhysical examinationObserveObservationInquireInquiries of clientVouchDocumentation
20KONFIRMASI Information Source Assets Cash in bank Bank Accounts receivable CustomerNotes receivable MakerOwned inventory out on consignment ConsigneeInventory held in public warehouses WarehouseCash surrender value of life insurance Insurance co.
25Auditing around the computer Auditing with the computer TEKNIK AUDIT BERBANTUAN KOMPUTERAuditing around the computerAuditing with the computerAuditing through the computerAdvantageous when:Significant part of internal controls is imbedded in a computer programSignificant gaps in visible audit trailLarge volumes of records to be tested
26Integrated Test Facility TEKNIK AUDIT BERBANTUAN KOMPUTERParallel SimulationTest DataIntegrated Test Facility
28It includes a list of the audit procedures PROGRAM AUDITIt includes a list of the audit proceduresthe auditor considers necessary.Most auditors use computers to facilitatethe preparation of audit programs.
29TEKNIK AUDIT BERBANTUAN KOMPUTER The auditor can use computer audit software to do the following:Perform the calculations and comparisons used in analytical procedures.Select a sample of accounts receivable for confirmation.Scan a file to determine that all documents in a series have been accounted for.Compare data elements in different files for agreement.Submit test data to the client’s programs to determinethat computer aspects of internal controls are functioning.Reperform a variety of calculations such as totaling the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger or inventory file.
34KERTAS KERJASAS 41 describes working papers as the records kept by the auditor of:1. The procedures applied,2. The tests performed,3. The information obtained, and4. The pertinent conclusions reached in the audit.
35KERTAS KERJAWorking papers provide:The principal support for the auditor’s report.A means for coordinating and supervising the audit.Evidence that the audit was made in accordance with GAAS.
38FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Cash 122 Acc. …………………. WORKING TRIAL BALANCE HUBUNGAN KERTAS KERJA DENGAN LAPORAN KEUANGANFINANCIAL STATEMENTSCashAcc. ………………….WORKING TRIALBALANCEPrelim. AIE’s FinalCash (90) 122AIE’sExpense 90Cash 90
39LEAD SCHEDULE – CASH A-1 Per G/1 AIE’s Final Petty Cash A-2 5 5 HUBUNGAN KERTAS KERJA DENGAN LAPORAN KEUANGANLEAD SCHEDULE – CASH A-1Per G/ AIE’s FinalPetty Cash ACash in Bank:General A (90)Payroll A(90) 122
40A-2 Cash Count Sheet A-3 Bank Reconciliation A-3/1 Confirmation A-3/2 HUBUNGAN KERTAS KERJA DENGAN LAPORAN KEUANGANA-2CashCountSheetA-3BankReconciliationA-3/1ConfirmationA-3/2O/S Check List
41A-4 Bank Reconciliation A-4/1 Confirmation A-4/2 O/S Check List HUBUNGAN KERTAS KERJA DENGAN LAPORAN KEUANGANA-4BankReconciliationA-4/1ConfirmationA-4/2O/S Check List
42PENYIAPAN KERTAS KERJA The following essential techniques of good working paper preparation should always be observed:Heading Each working paper should contain the name of the client, a descriptive title identifying the content of the working paper, and the balance sheet date or the period covered by the audit.Index number Each working paper is give an index or reference number, for identification and filing purposes.Cross-referencing Data on a working paper that is taken from another working paper or that is carried forward to another working paper should be cross-referenced with the index numbers of those working papers.
43PENYIAPAN KERTAS KERJA Tick marks Tick marks are symbols that are used on working papers to indicate that the auditor has performed some procedure on the item to which the tick mark is affixed, or that additional information about the item is available elsewhere on the working paper.Signatures and dates Upon completing their respective tasks, both the preparer and reviewer of a working paper should initial and date it.
45These files are intended to contain data of a historical or continuing KERTAS KERJA PERMANENThese files are intended to containdata of a historical or continuingnature pertinent to the current audit.
46Adjusting and reclassification entries KERTAS KERJA SEMENTARAAudit programGeneral informationWorking trial balanceAdjusting and reclassification entriesSupporting schedules