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BIOMES a. Large geographic regions of the earth’s surface defined by a specific climate and dominant plant and animal species.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOMES a. Large geographic regions of the earth’s surface defined by a specific climate and dominant plant and animal species."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOMES a. Large geographic regions of the earth’s surface defined by a specific climate and dominant plant and animal species.

2 * Can contain many different ecosystems *6 Major Terrestrial Biomes: Coniferous Forest Deciduous Forest Desert Grassland Tropical Rain Forest Tundra

3 TUNDRA Location = South of Arctic Circle; North of Coniferous Forest ; Only in Northern Hemisphere. Polar Zone


5 Temperature: Very low temperatures; Range = -34 o – 55 o F; (video -113 – 41 F) Long winter, very short summer = growing season.

6 TUNDRA Precipitation: Low; 2 nd only to desert in least amount of precipitation. Approx. 10” annually. Snow that does fall doesn’t melt quickly.

7 TUNDRA Animals: Caribou, Musk Oxen, ptarmigan, arctic fox, lemmings, mosquitoes, biting flies.

8 Ptarmigan in summer plumage Ptarmigan in winter plumage

9 Arctic Fox in summer coat Arctic Fox in winter coat

10 Extra Fat/Fur for winter; Seasonal Coloration; Migration

11 TUNDRA Autotrophs: Lichen, arctic willow, reindeer moss, candy tuff grass.

12 Low growing to avoid wind; rapid reproductive cycle.





17 Coniferous Forest Location: Just south of the tundra; above deciduous forest in northern hemisphere. Temperate Zone

18 Coniferous Forest

19 Temperature: Low to moderate temperatures; - 20 o -mid 80’s o F; Long winter followed short spring, summer, and fall seasons. Only 50-100 frost-free days per year.

20 Coniferous Forest Precipitation: Low to moderate; Ranks 4 th in amount; 10-30” annually. (video = 20-50” annually)

21 Coniferous Forest Animals: Moose, elk, grizzly bear, wolverines, badgers, lynx, mink, fishers, crossbill, loons

22 Extra fat/fur in winter; hibernation; migration

23 Coniferous Forest Plants: Many Fir trees, Pine trees, Spruce trees, and Larches; scattered Aspen, Maples, Birch; blueberry bushes.

24 Coniferous Forest Plant Adaptations: Needles = reduced surface area to reduce water loss; antifreeze- like chemical inside prevents water from freezing; needles retained all year to photosynthesize all year. Shape of tree & flexible branches allows snow to slide off.

25 Coniferous Forest Other: Thick layer of decaying needles on forest floor creates acidic soil. Least diverse forest. Largest terrestrial biome.



28 Deciduous Forest Location: Mid-latitudes of northern and southern hemisphere; Just south of coniferous forest in northern hemisphere. Temperate Zone

29 Deciduous Forest

30 Temperatures: Low to moderate temperatures; -5 o to 85 o F; 4 seasons of equal length.

31 Deciduous Forest Precipitation: Moderate to high; Ranks 5 th in amount; Range = 30”- 60” (video = 30”-80”) annually.

32 Deciduous Forest Animals: White Tail Deer, Gray squirrel, Black bear, Cottontail rabbit, Opossum, Box turtle, Rattlesnake, Chickadee, Cardinals, Eastern Bluebird.


34 Deciduous Forest Animal Adaptations: Hibernation Extra fat/fur in winter Migration (70% of birds do this!)

35 Deciduous Forest Plants: Oak trees, Maple trees, Hickory trees, Walnut trees, Poplar trees, Ash trees, Mountain laurel, Eastern Hemlock, White Pines.

36 Deciduous Forest Plant Adaptations: Broad Flat leaves = increased surface area for maximum photosynthesis during growing season. Autumn Leave Abscission = preparation for winter.




40 Deciduous Forest Other: Rich layer of soil (humus) on forest floor from annual decay of leaves. Autumn leave Abscission = Colorful autumn.

41 GRASSLANDS Location: Middle latitudes in the interior of continents (except Antarctica) Temperate and Tropic Zones


43 Temperature: Low – high; -40 o – 100+ o F.

44 GRASSLANDS Precipitation: Low to moderate; Ranks 3 rd in amount. Range = 10”-20” (video = 10”-40”) annually.

45 GRASSLANDS Animals: Bison, Prairie dogs, Jack rabbit, Antelope, Diamondback Rattlesnake, Prairie Chickens, Wolves, Coyote.


47 GRASSLANDS Animal Adaptations: Hibernation Extra fat/fur in the winter Migration Burrowing = dig into ground to hide and stay cool/dry. Herding = Safety in numbers

48 GRASSLANDS Plants: Bluegrass, Needle grass, Little bluestem grass, Indian grass, Switch grass, Clover, Sunflowers, Coneflowers (10,000 types of native grasses)


50 GRASSLANDS Plant Adaptations: Low growth point (at base of leaves above roots) allows plant to survive fire, grazing, drought, and freezing and then grow back.

51 Crown = location of the apical meristem = growth point of grass.

52 GRASSLANDS Other: Extremely fertile soil due to annual decay of grasses. Not enough precipitation to support the growth of trees.


54 DESERT Location: Scattered; Usually between 15 o – 30 o Latitude North and South of the equator. Many form on the leeward side of mountain ranges. Temperate and Tropic Zones


56 Temperature: Low to high; Below freezing - +100 o F. Direct Sunlight due to lack of clouds and humidity; Greatest temperature change in 24 hr. period of time.

57 DESERTS Precipitation: Extremely Low; Typically less than 10” annually; Very low humidity.

58 DESERTS Animals: Horned lizard, Gila monster, Kangaroo rat, Sidewinder rattlesnake, Black tailed jack rabbit, Kit fox


60 DESERTS Animal Adaptations: Nocturnal Estivation Large Ears Control of body temperature.

61 DESERTS Plants Prickly Pear Cactus, Saguaro Cactus, Yucca, Creosote bush, Ocotillo.



64 DESERTS Plant Adaptations: *Stems Store Water *Modified Leaves = Needles = reduced surface area & defense of stored water *Extensive Root system

65 DESERTS Other: Greatest change in temperature in a 24 hour period of time. Hot days = No clouds to filter sun; Cold nights = no cloud cover to hold in daytime heat; sand does not insulate the ground. Soil is not very fertile.

66 Tropical Rainforest Location: Just to the north and south of the equator; 7% of the earth’s surface. Tropic Zone

67 Tropical Rainforest

68 Temperature: High; 75 o -95 o F (video = 75-86); Eternal Summer = consistent temperature and length of day year round.

69 Tropical Rainforest Precipitation: Extremely High; Ranks 6 th in amount; 50”-260” (video = 80”-480”) annually; Extremely humid.

70 Tropical Rainforest Animals Toucan, Tree sloth, Boa; Leopard, Iguana, Gecko, Tree frogs, Poison Arrow Frogs, Spider monkey, Parrots, Tons of Insects!


72 Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations: (Add these!) Arboreal = appendages modified for tree-dwelling life ; prehensile tail used for grasping trees branches) Camouflage = many are green to blend in with background Vocal = communicate vocally; hard to see each other through dense foliage.

73 Tropical Rainforest Plants Kapok tree, Orchids, Rubber tree, Manioc, Hanging lianas, Moss, Lichen, Bromeliads, Ferns.



76 Tropical Rainforest Plant Adaptations: Fast growing = compete to reach the sun Epiphytic= air plants grow on tree branches to get sun Leaf petioles articulate = to follow sun Leaves = drip tips to shed excess water Extensive roots = to anchor in water logged soil

77 Tropical Rainforest Other: Stratified Layers = Emergent Layer; Canopy; Under story; Forest Floor

78 Most of the animals live here

79 Tropical Rainforest Greatest Diversity of Organisms ! Biome with the least diversity? Tundra

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