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The Sounds of Music The Musical Sound –Sound concepts parameters: –duration –amplitude –frequency –harmonics –phase –direction –Analog representations.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sounds of Music The Musical Sound –Sound concepts parameters: –duration –amplitude –frequency –harmonics –phase –direction –Analog representations."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Sounds of Music

3 The Musical Sound –Sound concepts parameters: –duration –amplitude –frequency –harmonics –phase –direction –Analog representations –Digital representations ADC-DAC sampling quantization format The Sounded Music –music as performance live vs. recorded expression –tempo –dynamics –vibrato –timbre Instruments and Technique The Sight of Music –the performer –the environment

4 Olivier Messiaen (1908–92) Quatre études de rythme, 1949– 50 2: Mode de valeurs et d'intensités, 1949

5 Pierre Boulez (1925–) Structures, book 1, for 2 pianos, 1951–2 premiered by Messiaen & Boulez in, Paris, 1952

6 The Musical Sound Hearing: changes in pressure

7 frequency=~20Hz–20kHz [Heinrich Hertz 1857–94 (telegraph)] intensity ratio=~20–100dB [Alexander Graham Bell, 1847–1922 (telephone)]

8 ffff fff ff f mf mp p pp ppp pppp


10 Sound Concepts A=amplitude –max. elongation λ=wavelength –distance between two points of the same phase f=frequency=1/λ –cycles per second (Hz)

11 overtones-harmonics-partials

12 tone sound noise

13 Phase phase shifted by 180º –phase distortion, audio image out of focus

14 Analog air pressure analogous to electrical voltage continuous-time signals problem: mechanical noise, multiplies in copying

15 Digital air pressure-electrical voltage-binary digits (bit) discrete-time signals ADC DAC

16 Analog Digital encoding Analog decoding

17 Binary vs. Decimal base two (0–1)base ten (0–9) 1001 9 101010 101111 110012 110113 111014 111115 16 bit

18 Sampling distortion caused by too low a sampling rate –original –reconstructed

19 Foldover sampling: 8x2x<2x reconstruction: goodmin.high  low (lowpass filter!)

20 Quantization 1-bit vs. 4-bit –1-bit=2 amplitude levels –4-bit=16 amplitude levels

21 Quantization 4-bit vs. 8-bit the higher the bit-rate, the greater the dynamic range (from loud to soft) 1-bit=6 bB, 16- bit=96 dB

22 Quantization and Sampling Rates CD: 16 bit/44.1 kHz/stereo, 12 cm Disc: 650–700 MBCD: 16 bit/44.1 kHz/stereo –Red Book standard 1980 DVD: 24 bit/96 kHz, 4.7 GB –1998 SACD: 2.8 MHz, 4.7 GB –1999

23 MD, mp3, DAT… –compressed format, not recommended for research MD mp3 –DAT: good but magnetic…

24 Graphical Representations of Sound 2-D 3-D temporal representation –amplitude vs. time spectral representation –amplitude vs. frequency –frequency/intensity vs. time (spectrogram)

25 Flute

26 Singing

27 Speaking Voice

28 Bird

29 Bat

30 Timbre as Expression bel canto vs. pop musician vs. singer traditional vs. authentic counterpoint vs. Klangmotiv

31 Sound of Music “sol do la fa mi do re, sol do la ti do re do” “But it doesn’t mean anything!” “So we put in words, one word for every note, like this…” (Sound of Music) “Thus, music no longer in need of words now seems more than ever in need of words.” (Scott Burnham) – 侯珅譯 : 現在不需要文字的音樂似乎比有文字的音 樂還要多 )!? “A picture is worth a thousand words.”

32 Literature Clarke, Eric F., and Nicholas Cook, eds. Empirical Musicology: Aims, Methods, Prospects. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Parncutt, Richard, and Gary McPherson, eds. The Science & Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Rink, John, ed. Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Day, Timothy. A Century of Recorded Music: Listening to Musical History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. Rink, John, ed. The Practice of Performance: Studies in Musical Interpretation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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