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“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness.” --- Mark Twain “Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ.

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Presentation on theme: "“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness.” --- Mark Twain “Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness.” --- Mark Twain “Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment” --- Albert Einstein “He flattered himself on being a man without any prejudices; and this pretension itself is a very great prejudice” --- Anatole France “Prejudice is a great time saver. You can form opinions without having to get the facts” --- E. B. White Prejudices are rarely overcome by argument; not being founded in reason they cannot be destroyed by logic” --- Tryon Edwards Prejudice Quotes

2 Stereotypes ( Generalized beliefs about the characteristics of a group – good or bad) Prejudice ( Dislike based on faulty and inflexible generalizations; either felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward individuals because of their group membership) Discrimination (Different treatment of people based on their membership of a group)

3 Prejudice and Discrimination Types (just about anything): Sex Race Age Religion Attractiveness (and height & weight) Accent Hair color Sexual orientation Social economic status (e.g., money) Disability Nationality

4 Development of Prejudice Socialization (e.g., parents, peers, media ) Relative status and competition (e.g., for resources) Social identity theory (e.g., In versus Out-Groups) Cognitive processes (e.g., information processing, decision making) (e.g., Negative behavior = more memorable, influential; Minority status = distinctive)

5 Institutional Prejudice What is it?



8 Gender Discrimination Examples & Institutional Prejudice Voting rights (Granted in 1920) linklink Jury service (not until S.C. Case in 1975 that service could not be confined to men) Access to athletics (title ix in 1972) EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT ( ERA ) linklink [ Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of sex ] Title VII of the Civil Rights Act [sex introduced to defeat the bill] Family and Medical Leave Act ( FMLA ) [focus on maternity leave] Medical insurance coverage (e.g., birth control, examinations) Sexual harassment (1986 supreme court case; damage and liability limitations)

9 Circa 1983


11 ~ Some Attitudes Towards Women Scale Items ~ The initiation of dating should come mostly from a man. Intoxication among women is worse that intoxication among men. The satisfaction of a husband’s sexual desire is a fundamental obligation of every wife. Women should be as free to initiate marriage as men. The intellectual leadership of a community should largely be in the hands of men. Swearing and obscenity is more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man. Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming good wives and mothers. A wife should make every effort to minimize irritation and inconvenience in the male head of the family. Measurement of Attitudes


13 _____ Most old people get set in their ways and are unable to change _____ It is foolish to claim that wisdom gets better with old age _____ Most old people tend to let their homes become shabby and unattractive _____ Most old people spend too much time prying into the affairs of others and giving unsought advice _____ Most old people should be more concerned with their personal appearance; they’re too untidy _____ If old people expect to be liked, their first step is to try to get rid of their irritating faults _____ Old people have too much power in business and politics _____ Most old people make me feel ill at ease 1 (Highly Disagree) to 7 (Highly Agree)

14 G-rated Films (Family Films) Males outnumber females 3 to 1 (In G,, PG, PG-13, R-rated: 2.7 to 1 males or 73%) TV for children 11 and under: males 2x more prevalent 83% of the narrators are male 85.5% of characters are White, 4.8% are Black, and 9.7 from other ethnic backgrounds (e.g., Hispanic, Asian) Females are almost four times as likely as males to be shown in sexy attire (In G, PG, PG-13), R-rated: females 5x more likely to be shown in revealing attire and 3x more likely to be shown with a thin figure) Animation versus live action: females more likely to have small waists (37% vs. 6.9) and unrealistic body type (22.7% vs. 1.2%) From 2006 to 2009 not one female character was depicted in G-rated family films in the field of medical science, as a business leader, in the law, or in politics. 80.5% of all working characters are male and 19.5% are female, which is a contrast to real-world statistics of women comprising 50% of the workforce Only 7% of directors, 13% of writers, and 20% of producers are female Figures based on studies conducted by Dr. Stacy Smith, Ph.D. at the USC Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism (Gender stereotypes: An analysis of popular films and TV; 2008) Presentation of Females in the Media

15 Why so important? 2011 Kaiser Family Foundation: In US, those from ages 8-18 consume an average of 7,5 hours of entertainment media daily. 71% have TVs in bedroom Stacey Smith et al. recently analyzed 11,927 speaking roles on prime-time television programs aired in spring 2012, children's TV shows aired in 2011 and family films (rated G, PG, or PG-13) released between 2006 and 2011. More on Females in the Media 44.3 percent of females were gainfully employed -- compared with 54.5 percent of males. Women across the board were more likely to be shown wearing sexy attire Male-female ratio in STEM fields was 14.25 to 1 in family films and 5.4 to 1 on prime time TV. Percentages of speaking female characters in each media form: Women made up 28.3 percent of characters in family films, 30.8 percent of characters in children's shows, and 38.9 percent of characters on prime time television. In over, 1000 top grossing fills (2002-2012, 4.4% directors were female) Females are more likely than males to be depicted in a stereotypical light (caregivers, romantically involved, lacking employment) Females are far less likely to be shown in films as holding clout and powerful positions in political (e.g., Senators, Representatives), financial (e.g., CEO), or legal (SC Justices) arenas.



18 Commercials in Prime Time (speaking roles) White 83.3% Black 12.4% Asian 2.3% Latino 1.0% Native American.4% Source: Mastro & Stern (2003) Representations of race in television commercials: A content analysis of prime-time advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media

19 WHO is NOT on TV? WHO IS on Prime Time TV? Television Images (cont.) The Elderly Hispanics Young, Attractive, Financially Successful U.S Census 2010: U.S. Hispanic population surged 43%, rising to 50.5 million in 2010 from 35.3 million in 2000. Latinos constitute 16% of the nation's total population of 308.7 million

20 Introduction of competition (e.g., baseball, football, tug-of-war) Result --- Open hostility to out-group members Greater in-group solidarity Sherif’s Robbers Cave (Boys Camp) Study

21 Sherif (cont.) ~ Group Development ~ Leaders selected Nicknames chosen Division of labor established Norms emerged Sanctions developed

22 Ineffective solution --- Increased social contact between group members (boys fought and argued more) Other common practices used in society: Presentation of accurate/favorable information about the other group Bring leaders together Attend religious services Sherif (cont.) Solution -- Work on common goals; everyone has to work together (e.g., break in water main, car problems, $ for movie)

23 Allport Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination Key Factors Support of Authority Equal Status Contact Work on Common Goals (e.g., Sherif’s work and cooperative classrooms)

24 Jigsaw Classroom [For specific steps see:] Process : Each person is given information to present to the group that is valuable to find a solution to a given problem Timeframe --- 45 minutes, 3 times/week For example Eleanor Roosevelt: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with FDR and their children, (3) Her life after FDR contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after FDRs death

25 Jigsaw Classroom Results Increased liking for classmates Increased self-esteem Increased liking for school Decreased negative ethnic stereotypes Higher scores on standardized tests

26 Greater participation in school activities Greater ability to role-take (empathize with others) Different attributions for success & failure (i.e., more external attributions for failures of others; avoidance of fundamental attribution error) Additional Jigsaw Classroom Results

27 30 photos of women rated in terms of attractiveness (5-point scale) Support feminist movement Do not support feminist movement Results --- Less attractive females perceived as feminist No differences between males & females No effect of rater’s own attitudes regarding women's liberation Procedure -- Place 15 pictures into each pile Female Attractiveness and Support for the Feminist Movement

28 Gender FemaleMale RegularFastRegularFast Unattractive Attractive Rated on various factors (e.g., ability, integrity, likeability) Key is perception of levels of femininity. If highly feminine, not seen as very capable. Female Attractiveness and Corporate Success X

29 Summary: Reasons for the success of a rapidly rising attractive female: Less due to ability and effort Perception of “femininity” is key (not attractiveness per se)

30 Rate traits of typical males Rate traits of typical females Rate traits of successful leaders (managers) Male traits seen as similar to leadership traits Female Traits and Leadership

31 Males higher ratings on “ Dominant-Aggressive ” characteristics – e.g., competitive, need for power, aggressive, assertive (especially by male raters) Females higher ratings on “ Social Humanitarian ” characteristics - - e.g., sympathetic, desire for friendship, helpful (especially by female raters)

32 CompanyCEOCompanyCEO GENERAL MOTORSMary Barra 2014 AVONSherilyn McCoy 2012 HEWLETT-PACKARDMeg Whitman 2011 SEMPRA ENERGYDebra Reed 2011 IBMVirginia Rometty 2012 GUARDIAN LIFEDeanna Mulligan 2011 PEPSICOIndra Nooyi 2006 CAMPBELL SOUPDenise Morrison 2011 A.D.MPatricia Woertz 2006 MYLANHeather Bresch 2012 LOCKHEED MARTINMarillyn Hewson 2013 INGREDIONIlene Gordon 2009 DUPONTEllen Kullman 2009 CH2M HILLJacqueline Hinman 2014 MONDELEZIrene Rosenfeld 2006 GRAYBAR ELECTRICKathleen Mazzarella 2012 GENERAL DYNAMICSPhebe Nokakovic 2013 GANNETTGracia Martore 2011 TJXCarol Meyrowitz 2007 FRONTIER COMM.Maggie Wilderotter 2006 XEROXUrsula Burns 2009YAHOOMarissa Meyer 2012 DUKE ENERGYLynn Good 2013 Female CEOs of Fortune 500 Companies? 2011 = 12; 2012 = 18 23 (Link)Link

33 In 2006, 23% of university presidents were female. In 2011, that figure climbed to a bit over 26% Women hold 24% of full professorships in the United States Female Representation in Academics

34 Women in the US Senate (N = 20; 2013) Barbara MikilskiDianne FeinsteinBarbara Boxer Debbie StabenowMaria Cantwell Parry MurraySusan Collins Mary Landrieu Lisa MurkowskiAmy KlobucharJeanne ShaheenKirsten Gillibrand Kelly Ayotte Claire McCaskillKay Hagan Tammy Bladwin Deb FischerHeidi HeitkampMazie HironoElizabeth Warren

35 Lower/Single House Upper House/Senate RankC0untryTotal# Women % WomenTotal# Women % Women 1RW803948.8 2SWE34916547.3 3Costa Rica 572238.6 4Finland2007638.0 5Norway1696437.9 6Denmark1796636.9 7Nether- lands 1505536.7752229.3 8Cuba60921936.0 67USA4357918.21002020.0 Female Representation in Politics

36 CountryLeader Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Liberia President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf Argentina President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchne Bangledesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed Iceland Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurdardóttir Lithuania President Dalia Grybauskaite Costa Rica President Laura Chinchilla Trinidad and Tobago Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar Australia Prime Minister Julia Gillard Slovakia Prime Minister Iveta Radicová Brazil President Dilma Rousseff Mali Prime Minister Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé Kosovo President Atifete Jahjaga Thailand Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra (Recently removed from office) Denmark Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt Switzerland President Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf Jamaica Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller Source: Current Female Heads of State Worldwide

37 Female Heads of State Source: president-female-head-female-political-leaders

38 Females as CEOs --- increase in stock price But, it depends on industry Price goes up higher if female CEO is head of female-dominated business, otherwise small decrease in stock price (Cooke & Glass, 2011) Survey of over 60,000 direct reports No gender preference for one’s own boss “Ideal” boss: 54% -- No Preference 13% -- Female Preference 33% -- Male Preference Gender and Leadership: Recent Findings Small but significant preference for opposite-sex bosses Increased preference for stereotypical female leader characteristics (sensitive, supportive) vs. direct, forceful. Study by Elesser & Lever (2011)

39 More Recent Findings Analyzed 99 data sets from 58 journal publications, 30 unpublished dissertations or theses, five books and six other sources (e.g., white papers) 86% of the samples from studies conducted in the United States or Canada From: Paustian-Underdahl, S. C., Walker, L. S. & David J. Woehr, D. J. (2014) Gender and Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis of Contextual Moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology Basic Results --- Ratings by others indicated that women were perceived as more effective leaders than men in middle management, business and education organizations Women were viewed as more effective in senior-level management positions Men rate themselves as significantly more effective than women rate themselves

40 31. If a Lord of the Confederacy should become seriously ill and be thought near death, the women who are heirs of his title shall go to his house and lift his crown of deer antlers, the emblem of his Lordship, and place them at one side. If the Creator spares him and he rises from his bed of sickness he may rise with the antlers on his brow. 44. The lineal descent of the people of the Five Nations shall run in the female line. Women shall be considered the progenitors of the Nation. They shall own the land and the soil. Men and women shall follow the status of the mother. 45. The women heirs of the Confederated Lordship titles shall be called Royaneh (Noble) for all time to come. 46. The women of the Forty Eight (now fifty) Royaneh families shall be the heirs of the Authorized Names for all time to come. 47. If the female heirs of a Confederate Lord's title become extinct, the title right shall be given by the Lords of the Confederacy to the sister family whom they shall elect and that family shall hold the name and transmit it to their (female) heirs, but they shall not appoint any of their sons as a candidate for a title until all the eligible men of the former family shall have died or otherwise have become ineligible. 90. When the Five Nations' Council declares war any Lord of the Confederacy may enlist with the warriors by temporarily renouncing his sacred Lordship title which he holds through the election of his women relatives. The title then reverts to them and they may bestow it upon another temporarily until the war is over when the Lord, if living, may resume his title and seat in the Council. 94. The men of every clan of the Five Nations shall have a Council Fire ever burning in readiness for a council of the clan. When it seems necessary for a council to be held to discuss the welfare of the clans, then the men may gather about the fire. This council shall have the same rights as the council of the women. Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law

41  Shoving incident (during a debate) Black shoves white person = 75% defined it as act of violence White shoves black person = 17% defined it as act of violence Study 1: Whites interviewed black applicants More distance (less overall immediacy) Shorter interview length Blacks had more speech errors Study 2: White interviewers treated White applicants in an immediate manner (the way Whites were treated in first study) or non-immediate (as Blacks were treated in 1 st study) Non-immediate applicants performed poorly (more speech errors) and were rated less highly Prejudice and Behavior (Race Discrimination) From: Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109-120.

42 Effect of Name on Resumes and Interview Rates Resume Quality Name type Low High “White” sounding name “Black” sounding name 50% less chance of being invited for an interview versus “Whites” with high qualifications From: Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review, 991- 1013.

43 Age and Job Performance Widespread belief that performance decreases with age Little evidence of this decline --- Meta-analysis found that older workers are equal to younger individuals on objective performance measures but scored lower on subjective, supervisor ratings Evidence that older employees are more responsible, productive, and have less turnover Organization with all employees over 50had 18% greater profits, 16% less turnover, 40% less absenteeism, and 60% less inventory los (theft?) versus similar companies with younger workers

44 QUALIFICATIONS LOWAVERAGEHIGH YOUNG OLD Age and Interview Questions Asked easier questions than those who were younger

45 From: Rupp, D. E., Vodanovich, S. J., & Crede, M. (2006). Age bias in the workplace: The impact of ageism and causal attributions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1337–1364. *** Also, part of this was due to rater ageism and viewing older people’s errors are due to stable factors

46 Effect of Labels Army recruits Randomly assigned labels Low Average High This group had better performance scores on various measures Also viewed their leaders as more effective > > > Self-fulfilling prophecy at work (leaders spent more time with the “high” expectation group)

47 ~ Social Identity Theory ~ [In-Group Bias] They tendency to link one’s self-concept and self esteem with the status and/or behavior of groups Also, people tend to reward members of ingroups (e.g., Minimal Group Paradigm) --- Self-esteem Basking in Reflected Glory --- Favorite Football Team wins --- “We”; More likely to wear team t-shirt Favorite Football Team loses --- “They”

48 In-groupOut-group Liking, spend time with leader Challenging, visible jobs Better memory for good behavior Treated warmly Performance evaluations Allocation of rewards Selection to the in-group 1)Ability 2)Responsibility 3) Trust Less desirable jobs Less time spent with supervisor Treated formally Lower performance evaluations Less rewards Perceived similarity In and Out-Groups Bias

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