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JAVIER ECHAIZ Clase 26 Javier Echaiz D.C.I.C. – U.N.S.

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Presentation on theme: "JAVIER ECHAIZ Clase 26 Javier Echaiz D.C.I.C. – U.N.S."— Presentation transcript:

1 JAVIER ECHAIZ Clase 26 Javier Echaiz D.C.I.C. – U.N.S.

2 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 2 Seguridad en Redes “The network is the security problem” -- parafraseando a Sun :-)

3 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 3 HACKERS - The Modern Roadwarrior-

4 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 4 l General Powell describes an historic meeting with Gorbachev, who was becoming frustrated in trying to explain how the old model of the world was unworkable. He finally leaned across the table to Secretary Schultz and said." You need to understand, Secretary Schultz; today I am ending the cold war." He then turned to Powell and said," General, you will have to find another enemy." l The bipolar world of the last half century has become a multipolar economy dominated by the United States, Europe and the Pacific Rim. - Economic competition has replaced military competition. - Information and economic value have become synonymous. - Personal and economic interests have merged with national interests. l The new economy is based upon information technology that is fast leading to an age of networked intelligence(the network is the computer) that is leading to a new society with new politics. l The world is on the doorstep of a digital economy fueled by information and knowledge. (Information is Power) THE CHANGING WORLD

5 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 5 l The breakdown of the old world order has lead to a rise in nationalism, old hatreds and religious rivalries and the formation of numerous nation-states each competing for its own viable economy and identity. l The conflict of the superpowers has given way to regional conflicts between comparatively small ethnic and political groups. l The foundation of both the mature and the emerging economies is based upon access to information that will enhance a mature economy or propel a weak one into power. l The competition then among nations is one based upon acquiring the latest and best economic information that will give the corporation or the nation an economic advantage. BUSINESS HAS BECOME WAR,THE BATTLEFIED IS THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY AND THE HACKER, FOR GOOD OR BAD, IS THE MODERN ROAD WARRIOR. THE CHANGING WORLD CONTd

6 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 6 Hackers - An Academic View -

7 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 7 l The original generation of Hackers has been said to be such personalities as John Von Neuman, Alan Turing and Grace Hopper. l The first use of the term "Hacker" is attributed to member of the "Tech Model Railroad Club" from MIT in the late 1950s. 4 This was originally a term of praise for the very best programmers and designers. l Media coverage in the 1980s redefined the term to be synonymous with "Computer Criminal". l The visibility and rise of Hackers is the result of four major developments: 1. The proliferation of computers 2. The dramatic rise and geographical expansion of networks. 3. The dramatic rise in computer literacy. 4. The dependence of organizations upon information. HACKER HISTORY

8 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 8 Computers are tools for the masses. Computers should not be private devices for the rich. l Information belongs to everyone. Most hackers start at the university which generates and distributes knowledge. l Coding is community property. The status of all software should be shareware, freeware or public domain. l Coding is an art. A good program has a certain elegance and beauty. In beauty there is creativity which is demonstrated by a program that can penetrate others. l The computer lives. Most hackers have a social and personal relationship with their computer. PERSONAL BELIEFS

9 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 9 4Access to computers should be unlimited and total. 4Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative 4All information should be free. 4Mistrust authority--promote decentralization. 4Hackers should be judged by their hacking. 4You can create art and beauty on a computer. 4Computers can change your life for the better The Hacker Ethic

10 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 10 l Mostly White. There seems to be a correlation between race and affluence. l Mostly Male. Unknown why males seem to be prominate as hackers. Although there have been examples of females serving as Hackers and Hacker Leaders. l Young. Most are under 30 and concentrated around colleges and universities. l Bright. A good hack results from meeting a challenge which will require in many cases exceptionally high intelligence. l Understanding, Prediction and Control. These three conditions seem to bring a sense of competence, mastery, and self-esteem. l Computer fascination. For many of us the computer is simply a tool. For the hacker it is an unendingly fascinating toy - a mystery wrapped in an enigma to be explored and understood. l No malice. The good hack does no damage. PERSONAL QUALITIES

11 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 11 l Misguided youths. Hackers are misguided youths and are essentially harmless. * Their intelligence and creativity should be encouraged but directed toward more constructive channels. l Security specialists. Hackers know the corporate security weaknesses. 4 They should be hired as security specialist and their expertise utilized to protect the corporate vital information resources. l Scumbags. Hackers are the scum of the earth and should be treated as varmints and hunted down with dogs and put away for life. l Ordinary criminals. Hackers should be treated no different than any other criminals. * Human nature inevitably breeds predators and it is the responsibility of everyone to put in place the necessary controls to protect their valuables. Social Views on Hackers

12 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 12 l "Hacking to me [is] to transcend custom and engage in creativity for its own sake..." l "For the most part, its simply a mission of exploration. In the words of the captain of the starship Enterprise, Jean-Luc Picard, "Let's see what's out there!" l "Its like picking a lock on a cabinet to get a screwdriver to fix a radio. As long as you put it back what's the harm?" l "Although computers are part "property" and part "premises"..... they are supreme instruments of speech..... We must continue to have absolute freedom of electronic speech." l "Thousands of people legally see and use this ever-growing mountain of data much of it erroneous. Whose rights are we violating when we peruse the file....The invasion took place long before the hacker ever arrived." l "Crime gets redefined all the time. Offend enough people or institutions and lo and behold, someone will pass a law." l "At the risk of sounding like some digital posse comitatus, I say: Fear The Government That Fears Your Computer." HACKER COMMENTS

13 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 13 A Hacker is someone who has achieved some level of expertise with computers. A Cracker is someone who breaks into systems without permission. A Script Kiddie is someone who uses scripts or programs from someone else to do his/her cracking. Other terms are leech, warez puppy, warez d00d, lamer and rodent. A Phreaker is a hacker who specializes in telephone systems. A White Hat is someone who professes to be strictly a good guy. A Black Hat is someone who is viewed as a bad guy. A Grey Hat is someone who falls in between White and black HACKER DEFINITIONS

14 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 14 l Psychological Need/Recognition. l Desire to Learn/Curiosity. l Revenge/Maliciousness. l Experimentation. l Gang Mentality. l Misguided trust in other individuals. l Altruistic reasons. l Self-gratification. l Desire to Embarrass. l Joyriding. l Scorekeeping. l Espionage. l Cyber-Warrior HACKER MOTIVATION

15 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 15 l Insider Attack. l Social Engineering. l Virus Infiltration. l Denial of Service. l Software Bug. l Password Infiltration. l Lack of Security Infiltration. l IP Spoofing. l Trojan Horse. l Stealth Infiltration. l Brute Force. l TCP/IP Protocol Flaw. l Worms and viruses TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS 4 49% are inside employees or contractors on the internal network. 4 17% come from dial-up from inside employees. 4 34% are from the Internet. 4 The major financial loss is internal hacking.

16 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 16 l Lax Security (Hard on the outside,soft on the inside!). l Target of Extremist Group, e.g., Tamil Tigers. l Target of a Radical Group, e.g., Animal rights. l High visibility makes a good "Scorekeeper" site. l High visibility makes a good "Embarrassment" site. l Resources that are useful to the hacker. l Destruction of ability to provide service to customer. l Desire to make a statement, e.g., Free Kevin. l You are a challenge,. e.g., Cheswick and Bellovin site. WHAT MAKES A TARGET?

17 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 17 HACKER CATEGORIES l Semi-Professional Hacking. Performed part-time and does not provide an income. 4 They fit the classical hacker characteristics.,i.e. they work and play on the edge of society, have a gang mentality, strong negative responses to threats against his/her self-esteem,can have narcissistic personality disorders. l Inter-City Hacking. Inner-city residence(any race,color, religion, creed, etc,), exhibits anger at social condition, exhibits no social conscience, jail is not a deterrent. 4 Hacking gives them a sense of power and allows them to make their own rules. l Eurohacking. More worldly, enlightened then US hackers and are generally motivated by philosophical or political concerns. 4 Generally thought of as a way of life and not a crime, thinks hacking is treating technology without respect; thinks its great sport to spin up intelligence communities. l Professional Hacking. This encompasses any for profit activity such as spies, industrial espionage, Narcoterrorist, White Collar criminals, etc.

18 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 18 HACKER ATTACK CATEGORIES l Personal Attacks. Attacks against an individuals electronic privacy. 4 This could take the form of exposure of TRW records, exposure of criminal records, changing correct to incorrect entries on your digital self, change your DMV record, change your telephone record, send explicit sex material across Internet in your name,etc. [Instructors note: One reporter critical of hackers was reputedly to have been sentenced to "electronic death". Hackers had his telephone, gas, and electricity turned off, flooded him with unordered mail-order merchandise and posted his credit report on public BBS] l Corporate Attacks. This attack primarily includes: 4 industrial espionage on the part of competitive corporations (whether foreign or domestic); 4 economic espionage such as insider trading information, plans of the Federal reserve System, and possible merges; and 4 white collar crime such as electronic funds transfer, bank fraud, toll fraud, etc. l Information Warfare. This attack is against a country, its politics and its sphere of influence This primarily includes: 4 Offensive Information Warfare against such infrastructures as Wall Street, the Federal Reserve System, the Internal Revenue Service, Air Traffic Control Systems, Manufacturing Systems, Communication Systems, etc. 4 Defensive Information warfare to provide infrastructure assurance against attacks. Note: These are attacks considered from an information perspective and from a very high level.

19 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 19 HACKER EXAMPLES l The Cuckoo's Egg discussed four hackers, Dirk Brzesinski, Peter Carl, Markus Hess and Karl Koch, from Hannover, Germany, penetrated or attempted penetration of at least 50 computers connected to MILNET. 4 These systems included the Pentagon, Lawrence Livermore Labs, the Los Alamos Nuclear Weapons Systems and the National Computer Security Center. 4 They exploited these systems by means of weaknesses in TCP/IP and the UNIX operating systems. 4 One of their favorite techniques was to plant Trojan Horses to steal authorized passwords. l The German Chaos Computer Club brought "chaos" to the national Aeronautics and Space Administration computer systems in the late 1980s. 4 They primarily planted Virus programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. 4 They gained access through a Unix flaw that the system administrator had failed to patch.

20 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 20 HACKER EXAMPLES Contd l Eberhard Blum, part of the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), is reputed to have instituted a program called Project Rehab composed of computer scientist designed to penetrate the communications systems of the Eastern block. 4 This organization since the fall of the Eastern block is reputed to have targeted the west. l The Direction Generale de la Securite Exterieur (the French CIA) is reputed to target foreign businesses. 4 Their favorite US targets seems to have been IBM and TI. 4 They are reputed to search visitor rooms looking for information on laptops and to bug Air France flights. 4 The French are reputed to auction these industrial secrets to the highest corporate bidder. l The Ministry for International Trade (MITI) is reputed to coordinate the industrial espionage activities of Japanese corporations. 4 These secrets are funneled through MITI which uses the information as part of their national industrial policy. l China, the former Soviet Union, France, Japan, Israel, Sweden, Switzerland and UK are reputed to be to be the most active in national industrial espionage

21 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 21 HACKER EXAMPLES CONTd l Robert Morris Jr, Cornell University, brought the Internet to its knees in 1988 through the "Internet Worm". 4 The Worm consumed computer resources making them unavailable to others thereby either halting the computer or slowing it to a crawl. The worm primarily consisted of two attack programs. * A program designed to exploit the backdoor DEBUG command in Sendmail, * a Finger daemon program to inundate the Finger daemon's input buffer and a password guessing program. l The Legion of Doom (LoD) and the Masters of Destruction(MoD) were two of the major computer gangs in the late 80s and early 90s. l They were from Brooklyn, the Bronx and Queens. l They wiretapped, intercepted data transmissions, reprogrammed phone computer switches, stole and sold passwords, etc. l The LoD were convicted in 1992 apparently turned in as a result of a falling out with other hackers. Selected LoD MembersSelected Known MoD Members Mark Abene (Phibr Optik) Chris Goggans( Eric Bloodaxe) Julio Fernandez(Outlaw) Scott Chasin(Doc Holliday) John Lee(Corrupt) Elias Ladopoulos(Acid Phreak) Paul Stira(Scorpion)

22 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 22 A Typical Hacker Attack

23 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 23 THE BOEING ATTACK INTERNET November A computer consultant noticed the system was sluggish. (a). He executed the top command to determine what was slowing down the system. (b). A program called vs was consuming a large amount of system resources and was running as superuser. 2. He next ran ps. a). vs did not appear so he suspected a break-in. 3. He executed the Emacs dired command and found the vs program in a directory called /var/.e/vs. 4. He next did a chdir() to the /var directory and did a ls -a command. (a). The directory /var/.e was not displayed. Boeing Computer Hacker Trusted Connection Commercial Computer Government Computer Modem Attack Education Computer November The programmer used the tar command to make a copy of the /var/.e, /bin and /etc directories. (a) He copied this to another computer. 6. The programmer then shut down the system. 7. He next examined the /bin/login file and found it had been modified to allow logging in with a special password. 8. This seemed to be an exceptionally sophisticated attack.

24 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 24 THE BOEING ATTACK INTERNET Boeing Computer Hacker Trusted Connection Commercial Computer Government Computer Modem Attack Education Computer November He found the /var/.e/vs was a password sniffer which passed copied passwords to a remote computer. 10. He found the /bin/ls and /bin/ps command had been modified to not display the directory /var/.e. 11. He also found the /bin/ls, /bin/ps and /bin/login file creation dates and modification times had been reset to the original dates and times. 12. He found, in addition, that the checksums for the modified commands matched those of the original unmodified versions. (a). A comparison of the modified programs with the backup version revealed the differences.

25 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 25 l What to Attack (selecting a network/target). 1. Internet a. Access the Network Information Center. The InterNic provides Registration (, Database ( and Information ( Services. b. whois server to obtain public information on hosts, networks, domains and system administrators. c. WWW using the Uniform Resource Locator(URL notation). d. DNS to acquire the dotted decimal address e. traceroute to determine intermediate networks. f. SNMP to dump a router table. g. Archie to establish the locations of files. Archie is a server with an index of filenames. h. Gopher as an ftp interface. Gopher allows access to resources through menus. Attack Methodology

26 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 26 l What to Attack (selecting a network/target). 2. Telecommunication/Modem a. Social Engineering. b. Dumpster Diving c. Demon Dialing(Scanning/Autodialing/WarDialing) c. Wiretapping d. Optical-spying e. Cheese box(unauthorized call forwarding) f. Piggybacking g. Call Forwarding h. Password Breaker i. Parking Lots j. Shoulder Surfing k. Socializing l. Stealing Laptops m. Wireless Communication Attack Methodology Contd

27 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 27 l Who to Attack (selecting a host). 1. Ping the address with an ICMP Echo Request. This can also be used to find the route of the packet to the address. 2. DNS with a reverse name look-up to translate the numeric address into a domain name address. 3. DNS HINFO records provide the hardware and operating systems release which will be helpful in formulating an attack. 4. Pinglist (a modification of traceroute with udp) to map the network. 5. Netmappers are publicly available. 6. Portmappers are publicly available. 7. The Login Screen can be used to derive information about the target. Note: Breadth is more important than innovation 4 Select a known vulnerability rather than expose a new one. Attack Methodology Contd

28 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 28 l Testing the host (finding a weakness). Note: Weaknesses are generally specific to an operating system,host hardware or due to old bugs that have not been patched. 4 Utilize Internet Security Scanner(ISS) or Security Analysis Tool for Auditing Networks(SATAN) to scan for various holes. a. Check for unprotected logins or mail alias( sync,guest,lp,etc.). Does not require a password. b. Connect to mail port with Telnet and logs mailer type and version. c. Attempts an anonymous FTP connection and trys to grab the /etc/passwd file by using the root account. May want a list of supported commands. d. rpcinfo to test for services running. This program prints out the current portmapper which details what Remote Procedure programs, ports, and protocols are active. Looking for NFS/mountd, yp/ms, rexd. e. ypx to attempt to grab the passwords through the Network Information System(NIS), originally called Yellow Pages, in order to invoke some type of dictionary attack. f. Transitive Trust Analyser to learn the source of logins and to recursively probe those hosts. g. fping to determine Internet connection or Firewall. Attack Methodology Contd

29 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 29 l Hacker goals after penetration 4 Leave no evidence of the successful attack. * The good hack retains a cloak of invisibility. 4 Fetch and crack the /etc/passwd file. 4 Obtain machine root(superuser) access. 4 Install password sniffing tools to collect data for later retrieval. 4 Install two or more security backdoors (security holes). 4 Check the /etc/hosts or.rhosts files for trusted hosts. 4 Check the mail alias database and log files. 4 Run security auditing programs such as: – COPS – Internet Security Scanner(ISS) – Security Analysis Tool for Auditing Networks(SATAN Attack Methodology Contd

30 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 30 HACKERS - A Hackers View -

31 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 31 - A Hackers View - Note: A hacker spends hours/week Hacking! l Why? 3 A challenge/A game of wits/skill and ingenuity. 3 A sense of enjoyment/Accomplishment. 3 Intensely interested in computers. l Hacker Profile: 3 Teens or early twenties. 3 A fast learner. 3 Academically advanced. 3 Bored in school. 3 Hackers grow up to become computer professionals. * As many as 80% of all system operators claim to have hacked.

32 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 32 Type of Hackers l The Novice: years old. 4 Live off more advanced Students. 4 Hacking is fun and mischief. 4 They will generally log on, look around, get bored and leave. 4 They can be unpredictable. 4 They will normally identify themselves as a hacker when confronted. * The more experienced hacker will be ambiguous. 4 Easily defeated by security

33 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 33 Type of Hackers Contd l The Student: 4 Very bright but bored. 4 Excited by learning more about computers. * They will spend days examining files on a system. 4 Hacking is a solitary pastime - not antisocial behavior. 4 Generally adheres to good computer ethics. * He wants to remain undiscovered so he can use the system. * He wants to stay out of trouble. * He respects the system/programmers and doesn't want to create additional work. * He may seek employment with the company (at just the right time with just the right credentials).

34 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 34 l The Tourist: 4 Likes adventure and a challenge. 4 They break in, look around and then leave. 4 The successful hack constitutes the thrill. 4 They will normally plan their attack. 4 They are meticulous and always figure the odds of success. * The harder the target the less likely they will attempt a break-in. 4 They normally trade information with other hackers. * They may service other hackers. 4 The best defense is to harden the system. Type of Hackers Contd

35 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 35 l The Crasher: 4 A troublemaker. 4 No obvious purpose or logic to their hacking. 4 Makes themselves visible by creating as much trouble as possible. 4 They are very patient and plan their attack to accomplish the most damage. * Erases programs, files, etc 4 Crashers don't have a good reputation with other hackers. * They crash hacker bulletin boards, close down hacker accounts, etc. 4 The Crasher must be stopped during the reconnaissance phase. Type of Hackers Contd

36 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 36 l The Thief: 4 Not perceived as Hacking but as Computer Crime. 4 They will spend hours in reconnaissance and planning the attack. 4 They use bribes, blackmail, wiretaps, spying, etc. 4 Normally works for the organization they are robbing. 4 Rarely discovered. 4 The best defense is in-depth security. Type of Hackers Contd

37 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 37 Levels of Effort l Level One. 4 Targets of opportunity. 4 Tests for basic flaws and if none are available moves on. 4 Little or no effort. l Level Two. 4 Partial to a particular OS and will expend extra effort. 4 Well known system defaults, loopholes and bugs. l Level Three. 4 More intense effort normally related to a specific host. 4 Tries common passwords and normally succeeds. l Level Four. 4 Extreme effort that takes months. 4 Successful about 90% of the time. 4 These are Tourists that research and plan with great patience. l Level Five. 4 A Thief ("Show me the money"). 4 He expects payback for his time and effort.

38 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 38 Attack Methodology l The Beginning - Motivation: Decide why this system should be attacked. 4 Boredom. 4 Revenge. 4 Financial gain. 4 Peer respect. 4 A challenge. 4 Rattle the site. 4 Curiosity

39 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 39 Attack Methodology l Step One - The Target Reconnaissance. Target Reconnaissance, sometimes called footprinting, is when the Hacker gathers information about the target system and the network. 4 Search the Internet - Web sites, IRC, newsgroups, etc. 4 Use the Domain Information Grouper(DIG) to attempt a Zone Transfer. 4 Gather information on network users through the Web, newsgroups, telephone books, Social Engineering, Dumpster Diving, examine cars, etc. * This will reveal password combination and the policy for determining user names.

40 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 40 Attack Methodology Contd l For example: 4 whois will find hosts on the network 4 nslookup on will return information contained in the DNS. 4 utilize a zone transfer program (DIG or named.xfer) to retrieve the DNS files from the primary DNS. 4 Utilize the ping command to determine which systems are connected to the Internet. 4 telnet will determine the machine type and OS version. 4 Utilize telnet to port 25 to determine the sendmail version and machine type. 4 Utilize rpcinfo to scan for active ports and return a list of rpc programs running on the machine w/version numbers and port numbers.. 4 Utilize finger to get a list of users on the system, etc.

41 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 41 l Step One - The Target Reconnaissance Contd. 4 Utilize whois to provide the following type information: Organizational Domain Network Point of Contact 4 The following type databases can provide this type information: InterNIC Database American Registry for Internet Numbers European IP Addresses Asia pacific IP Addresses U.S. Military U.S. Government 4 With the following type tools: Whois Web Interface Xwhois Attack Methodology Contd

42 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 42 l Step One - The Target Reconnaissance Contd. 4 Examine the target organization Web pages for: * Locations * Related companies * Organization w/phone numbers/ addresses. * Privacy and Security policies * Links to other sites. * News articles * Press releases * Review the HTML source code. 4 Utilize Internet Search Tools such as : * FerretPRO to search IRC, USENET, File databases. * AltaVista, Hotbot, etc search engines to search for links back to the target, rogue web sites at home, etc. * EDGAR database (Security and Exchange Commission) on the parent organization and subsidiaries. Attack Methodology Contd

43 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 43 l Step One - The Target Reconnaissance contd. The following type information should now be available: 3 Host name(s). 3 Host address(es). 3 Host owner. 3 Host machine type. 3 Host operating system. 3 Network owner. 3 Other hosts on network. 3 Network configuration. 3 Hosts trusted by network 3 Hosts outside network. 3 List of users. 3 User-name assignment policy. Attack Methodology Contd

44 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 44 l Step Two - The Probe and the Attack. 4 Remote Blind attack. The user knows the network address but not a valid account or access. * Exploit a service weakness * Exploit a protocol weakness 4 Inside User Attack. The user/hacker has user-level/unprivileged access. * Sniffed passwords. * Traded accounts. * Shoulder surfing. * Remote blind attack. * Cracked passwords. * Social engineering. * Default user Accounts. 4 Physical Attack. * Plug into the network * Physical access to the host. * Piggybacking. Attack Methodology Contd

45 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 45 l Step Two - The Probe and Attack Probe the system for weaknesses and exploit a security weakness to gain system entry. 4 Probe the system perimeter for potential weaknesses.This is a highly automated function and the most dangerous for the hacker. *Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks (SATAN). *Internet Security Scanner (ISS). *Strobe 4The probes provide a list of available services and ports. 4The services, depending upon their software version, will have known weaknesses that can be exploited. * These weaknesses are normally documented by a CERT advisory. 4 Exploit a security weakness and gain system entry. Typically, you want a login account and a password. Example: *An encrypted password can be broken with Crack. *Typical attacks would be : è a phf attack on a web page. è a fingerd buffer attack. è a FTP bounce attack. Attack Methodology Contd

46 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 46 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Scanning) l Network Scanning 4 Ping Sweep a range of IP addresses/Network blocks to determine if an individual systems is alive. The following tools are typical: *ping w/TCP/IP *fping is part of the TAMU tools *nmap by Fyodor *Pinger from Rhino9 *Ping Sweep from SolarWinds *WS_Ping ProPack from ipswitch * NetScanTools from Northwest Perfomance l Network Scanning Countermeasures 4 Utilize Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) such as *Network Flight Recorder *RealSecure *BlackIce * NetProwler Attack Methodology Contd

47 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 47 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Scanning) l Port Scanning 4 Port Scanning is the process of connecting to TCP/UDP ports on the target system to determine what services are running. This is critical for the hacker to know the type of OS/Service in use. Typical port scan tools are as follows: *Strobe by Julian Assange. *Udp-scan that comes with SAINT (a newer version of SATAN). *netcat from Hobbit. *PortPro from StOrM *Portscan from Rhad of the 7th Sphere. *Network Mapper (Nmap) from Fyodor (arguably the best). Attack Methodology Contd

48 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 48 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Scanning) l Port Scanning 4 Typical port scans are as follows: *TCP connect scan: The three-way handshake (SYN, SYN/ACK, ACK). è The Scanner immediately sends an ACK/FIN packet to end the session. *TCP SYN (Half-Open) scan: A full TCP connection is not made. Only a SYN packet is sent to the target port. è If a SYN/ACK is received the target port it is LISTENING.  A RST/ACK is immediately sent by the Scanner so that the connection is never established and therefore not logged. è If a RST/ACK is received it usually means the port is not LISTENING. *TCP FIN (Stealth) scan: Only a ACK/FIN packet is sent to the target port. è Closed Ports tend to respond with a RST/ACK. è Open ports tend to ignore the FIN packet. *TCP Xmas Tree scan: A FIN/URG/PUSH packet is sent to the target port. è The target port should send back a RST packet for all closed ports (RFC 793). Attack Methodology Contd

49 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 49 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Scanning) l Port Scanning.Typical port scans contd: 4 TCP Null scan: A packet is sent with no flags set *The target host should send back a RST for all closed ports (RFC 793). 4 UDP scan: The scanner sends a UDP packet to the target port. * A closed port responds with an "ICMP port unreachable" message. * An open port will typically not respond with this message. 4 Fragmentation Scan: This is a combination of techniques. *Typically, the SYN and FIN scan is used but is broken into tiny fragments prior to sending. 4 Ident scan: This is also a combination of methods. *A full TCP connection is established to port 113. *The Ident Protocol (RFC 1413) is then used to determine the owner of the process connected to that port. l Port Scanning Countermeasures 3 Intrusion Detection Systems such as * NFR * RealSecure * NetProwler Attack Methodology Contd

50 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 50 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Stack Fingerprinting) l Stack Fingerprinting 4 This technique allows the hacker to determine the host's operating system. 4 Vendors interpret the RFC guidance differently when writing their TCP stack. 4 TCP Stacks can be probed to determine these differences. * FIN Probe: The stack should not respond, however, many will respond with a FIN/ACK. * Bogus Flag Probe: An unidentified TCP flag is set in the header of a SYN packet. * ISN Probes: Stacks may differ as to how they determine the Initial Sequence Number. * DF Bit Monitoring: Some stacks set the DF bit to enhance performance. * TCP Initial Window Size: The window size on some stacks are unique. * ACK Value: Stacks differ on the ACK value, e.g., some return Seq + 1 while others will simply return the same Seq number received. Attack Methodology Contd

51 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 51 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Stack Fingerprinting) l Stack Fingerprinting 4 This technique allows the hacker to determine the host's operating system. 4 Vendors interpret the RFC guidance differently when writing their TCP stack. 4 TCP Stacks can be probed to determine these differences. * ICMP Error Quencing: Stacks may send error messages at different rates. * ICMP Message Quoting: Stacks will differ in the amount of information quoted in ICMP errors. * ICMP Error Message Integrity: Some stacks may alter the IP header when sending back ICMP error messages. * Type Of Service (TOS): The TOS for "ICMP Port Unreachable" messages should be zero, however, this may vary by stack. * Fragmentation Handling: Stacks handle overlapping fragments differently. * TCP Options: Stacks may handle multiple options such as No Operation, Max Seq Size, Window Scale Factor, and Timestamps differently. Attack Methodology Contd

52 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 52 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Enumeration) l Enumeration 4 The process of extracting identifying network resources/shares, extracting users/groups, identifying applications and banner grabbing. 4 Once enumeration takes place it is simply a matter of time before a password is guessed or a system weakness is identified. 4 Enumeration techniques are OS specific. The following are typical UNIX techniques. * Network Resources and Shares: è Look for NFS export file systems with the command showmount which can extract shared directories. è Utilize pscan by pluvius to explore NIS (Internet Yellow Pages). è Utilize the snmpwalk utility to explore the objects in a MIB. Attack Methodology Contd

53 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 53 * Users and Groups è Utilize the finger utility to identify the users on a system. è Utilize rwho or rusers to display users currently logged into the system. è Utilize the VRFY command (SMNP) to confirm names of actual users or EXPN command (SNMP) to reveal alias addresses. è Utilize the TFTP protocol to get /etc/passwd * Applications and Banners è Utilize rpcinfo to enumerate RPC applications listening on remote hosts. è NAI CyberCop Scanner is arguably the best commercial RPC scanning tool. è Utilize netcat to grab banners or explore HTML code. Attack Methodology Contd

54 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 54 Step Two - The Probe and Attack (Enumeration) Contd l Sam Spade for Blighty Design is a favorite hacker tool for enumerating entire sites. it is a mixed bag of tools. 4 ping: Check to see if a host is alive. 4 nslookup: find the IP address from a host name or vice versa. 4 whois:Used to find a domain name. 4 IP Block Whois: Used to find who owns a block of IP addresses. 4 dig: Queries a DNS server for all the information it has on a host. 4 traceroute: To find the route a packet takes between a sending and a remote host. 4 SMTP VRFY: Determine if an address is real and its forwarding address. Attack Methodology Contd

55 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 55 l Sam Spade Contd. 4 web browser: A utility to view the raw HTTP traffic rather than rendered HTML. 4 keep-alive: Keeps a dial-up link alive. 4 DNS zone transfer: Queries the DNS server for all the information it has on a domain. 4 SMTP relay check: Relays mail back to the hacker site through an intermediate server. This is a check on the security of that server. 4 usenet cancel check: Looks for cancelled messages in a group of messages. 4 website download: copies a website to disk. 4 website search: search a website for a matching pattern. 4 header analysis: Checks a header for consistency to help track down forged mail. 4 Blacklist lookups: Checks the relayed spam source list. Attack Methodology Contd

56 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 56 Information Identified l Internet/Intranet/Extranet 4 Network protocols. 4 Domain Names. 4 Network Blocks. 4 IP Addresses reachable via the Internet/Intranet/Extranet. 4 TCP/UDP Services running on each system. 4 System Architecture. 4 Access Control Mechanisms. 4 Intrusion Detection Systems. 4 User/Group names, Systems Banners, Routing tables and SNMP information l Remote Access 4 Analog/Digital Telephone numbers. 4 Remote System access types (Modems/Faxs/Voice). 4 Authentication mechanism

57 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 57 l Step Three - Advance the attack, hide the attack and install a backdoor(s). 4 Advance the attack by gaining root access. * Utilize COPS, Tiger and Crack. 4 Hide the attack. * Modify the system logs(syslog, utmp, and wtmp files ). * Eliminate all records of the activity. 4 Install a backdoor. *A modified, drop-in replacement of a critical system binary code that provides authentication and system reports. è For example, rootkit comes with the source code for ps, ls, sum and who. * Provide continued, unlogged use of the system. * Hide suspicious processes and files. * Report a false system status. * Report false checksums for modified programs. Attack Methodology Contd

58 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 58 l Step Four - Establish a Listening Post. 4 Install a Sniffer, Snooper and Auditing program. This information Is used to further the attack. * Sniffer. A program to monitor and log network data. è Data is normally not encrypted on an internal network. è Looks for name/password pairs, financial information, private data, etc. * Snooper. A program to monitor a user's activities by looking at keystrokes, monitoring process memory, etc. * Host Static Auditing tool. A program to report system security vulnerabilities è Computer Oracle and Password System (COPS) è Texas A&M Univ Tiger(TAMU Tiger) Attack Methodology Contd

59 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 59 l Step Five - Exploitation. Expand control from a single host to multiple hosts. 4 Renew the attack on other hosts by * Exploiting passwords. * Exploiting trusted hosts. Attack Methodology Contd

60 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 60 The DataStream Cowboy and Kuji JPL NASA South Korean Atomic Research Latvia United Kingdom NATO Chili Columbia Commercia l Wright Patterson AFB Rome LABs Rome Labs Attack Two Hackers - Datastream and Kuji. Attack lasted 26 days. Activities were monitored for 20 days. Over 150 intrusions into the Rome Labs. 7 Sniffers compromised 30 Rome Systems. At least 8 countries were used as conduits.

61 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 61 l On 28 March 1994 the Rome Labs Sysadmins detected a password Sniffer. 4 The Sniffer had collected so much information that it had filled a disk and crashed the system l Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) was notified who, in turn, notified AFOSI. Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC) was notified and SA Jim Christi was assigned the case. l The investigators, after reviewing the logs and interviewing the Sysadmins, found that: 4 The penetration was made on March 23 by two hackers. 4 They penetrated seven computers and planted sniffers accounts on 30 systems were compromised. 4 Rome Lab had been used as a jumping off point for hack attacks on other military, government and research facilities around the world. l The Commanding officer was briefed and made the decision to leave several systems open in the hopes of tracking the hackers. 4 Pursue and Prosecute Rome Lab Attacks

62 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 62 l The investigative team established a snooper program that began key stroke monitoring on the systems left open and discovered the hacker handles Datastream Cowboy and Kuji. l The majority of the attacks were traced back to: 4, Seattle Washington and 4, New York City. l On 5 April, an Internet informant provided AFOSI an address and home Telephone number (Datastream) in the UK of a hacker who had been bragging about the exploit. l Scotland Yard initiated a pen register on the hackers telephone while AFOSI continued to monitor Datastream's online activity. During this time, based upon sniffed passwords, he : 4 Attacked systems at the Jet Propulsion Lab in California and 4 Attacked systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt,Md 4 Compromised an Aerospace contractor systems in California and Texas 4 Initiated a scan against Brookhaven Labs, DOE, in NY. Rome Lab Attacks Contd

63 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 63 l On April 14/15, 1994 the investigative team observed Kuji initiate attacks from Latvia against: 4 Goddard Space Flight Center 4 Wright-Patterson AFB 4 NATO Headquarters l In the meantime Datastream was busily attacking the Korean Atomic Research Inst. Alarm bells started going off until it was discovered to be South Korea. l In May, 1994 Scotland Yard executed a search warrant and arrested 16 year old Richard Pryce. His tool was a 25 Mhz, 486SX, 170 Mb machine. l During the interview Datastream indicated: 4 He communicated with Kuji only through the Internet or Telephone. 4 He provided the information he stole to Kuji. 4 Kuji had been his mentor. l Pryce pleaded guilty and was fined 1,200 pounds. l In June year old Matthew Bevan, A.K.A. Kuji, was finally apprehended. In 1997 Charges against him were dropped due to lack of evidence. 4 Kuji is now a security consultant. His web site is Rome Lab Attacks Contd

64 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 64 l VIRUS. A self-replicating, malicious program segment that attaches itself to legitimate application programs, operating system commands or other executable system components and spreads from one system to another. 4 Each reproduced virus code then grows independently of the other. 4 The virus grows geometrically. Boot Sector. A virus that replaces the boot sector of a floppy or hard drive. System File. A virus that infects system files. Stealth. A virus that hides itself and actions from the operating system. Polymorphic. A virus that changes itself each time it infects a file or disk. This virus hides itself and its actions from the operating system. Multi-Parite. This virus infects both files and boot sectors. Macro Virus. This virus is written in a macro language and is commonly found in software containing a scripting language such as Word, Excel, and Powerpoint. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS

65 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 65 l WORM. An independent program that replicates from machine to machine across network connections and that clogs networks and computer systems as it spreads. 4 It is designed to search for idle computer memory and then to copy itself repeatedly until the memory is exhausted and the computer crashes. 4 A worm is not a virus although they are sometimes confused. 4 A virus must infect other programs with a copy of itself. 4 The most famous is the Internet Worm by Robert Morris. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS

66 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 66 l IMPERSONATION. An attempt to gain access to a system by posing as an authorized user. Synonymous with masquerading and mimicking. Example: using another person's access code to log on. l BOMBS. A computer program residing in a computer that is executed at appropriate or periodic times to determine conditions or states of a computer system and that facilitates the perpetration of an unauthorized act. Example: a program that causes the system to erase all financial files when it discovers that a particular person has been removed from the personnel files. Writing Logic Bombs is very easy but difficult to detect. 4 A Time Bomb has a time trigger. 4 A Logic Bomb has a computer state trigger. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

67 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 67 l TRAP DOOR. A breach created intentionally in an ADP system for the purpose of collecting, altering or destroying data. 4 Generally done through putting extra code in a software program which acts as a testing aid for programmers during construction, testing or program maintenance. l TROJAN HORSE. A computer program that is apparently or actually useful but that performs another function. 4 The Trojan can modify databases, write checks, send electronic mail, destroy File Allocation Tables, directories or files. 4 The Trojan Horse can be embedded by a programmer or down loaded from a BBS. 4 Most Trojan Horses in the microcomputer detonate their payload the moment they run not only carrying out their intended function but also destroying themselves. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

68 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 68 l SOFTWARE PIRACY. The illegal copying of software (and repackaging it for sale). 4 Software piracy is being fought by the Software Publishing Association. 4 Indications are that this amounts to between 4-7$ billion loss in sales. 4 This results from individual copying, Pirate BBS, country piracy(China, Taiwan, Singapore, etc)and try before buying rental/loans. l SNIFFING. The installation of protocol analyzer software program (Sniffer) to gather surreptitiously gather user passwords and 4 log them into and unused space under an innocuous name, such as "..". 4 The hacker at some time in the future will return and download the passwords and if necessary employ a Password Cracker. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

69 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 69 l BROWSING. Searching through storage to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing of the existence or the format of the information being sought. l DATA DIDDLING. The unauthorized changing of data before or during their input to a computer system resulting in increased paychecks, extra leave, overtime pay, etc. l EMBEZZELING. Using a computer to prepare false financial reports. l FORGERY. The illegal creation of documents or records which are intended to be construed as real, officially produced documents or records. 4 For example, using desktop publishing to create a false drivers license, social security card or passport. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

70 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 70 l FRAUD. The exploitation of information systems in an attempt to deceive an organization and/or to take its resources. l DENIAL OF SERVICE. This is performed by trashing a system, tying up ports, placing garbage on screens, changing file names, and erasing program files. 4 This type attack is becoming more common( Spamming, SYN Attack, etc). l SPOOFING. The deliberate inducement of a user or a resource to take incorrect action. 4 Example: a user writes a program that gives "system like" responses to someone trying to log on the system; thus, the person trying to log on will unwittingly give his password to the person/program doing the spoofing. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

71 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 71 l SUPERZAPPING. The unauthorized use of a utility computer program that violates computer access controls to modify, destroy, copy, disclose, insert, use, deny use or expose data in a computer. l The name derives from an IBM utility program called "Superzap" which permitted an operator to start, stop or modify a procedure that has been misbehaving. 4 The equivalent in a microcomputer would be something like PC Tools or Norton Utility. l SALAMI TECHNIQUES. The unauthorized, covert process of taking small amounts (slices) of money from many sources in and with the aid of a computer. 4 An example is the round down fraud, whereby remainders from the computations of interest are moved to the attackers account instead of being systematically distributed among accounts that were rounded up. [The story is told of a Russian worker who left the factory each night with a wheelbarrow full of sawdust and every night the guard poked the sawdust and upon finding nothing let him pass. Several years later, after both were retired, they accidentally met in a bar and the guard asked him what he was stealing in the wheelbarrow to which the worker replied: "Oh, I was stealing the wheelbarrows." ] TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

72 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 72 l PIGGY BACKING. Unauthorized access that is gained to an ADP system via another user's legitimate connection. 4 A method of gaining unauthorized physical access to guarded areas when the attacker does not possess the required authorization to pass. 4 Electronic piggybacking occurs when a computer or terminal covertly shares the same communication line as an authorized user. The host computer, to which they both transmit, is unable to distinguish the signals of the authorized user from those of the unauthorized user. l EAVESDROPPING. The unauthorized interception of information-bearing emanations through the use of methods other than wiretapping(TEMPEST). l SCAVENGING. Searching through residue for the purpose of unauthorized data acquisition. 4 A covert, unauthorized method of obtaining information that may be left in or around a computer system after the execution of a job. 4 Included here is a physical search (trash barrels, carbon copies, ribbons, diskettes, etc) and a search for residual data within the computer storage areas, temporary storage tapes, and the like. 4 This, for example, encompasses dumpster diving, unerasing diskette files, examining scratch tapes and looking at old ribbons. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

73 Seguridad en Sistemas: Seguridad en Redes 73 l BUMBLING. Sometimes called "accidents", "errors of omission", or "errors of commission". l Indications are that this amounts to 50-60% of annual dollar loss. This is the result of clumsy fingers, big thumbs, and improper training, l DATA LEAKAGE. The covert copying of computer information and its removal from the organization. 4 For example, this could be as simple as the copying of a software program for home use. 4 This can be accomplished through diskettes, tape or hard copy. Very rarely do guards perform body checks or open brief cases. l WIRETAPPING. Normally accomplished at the wiring closet. 4 Passive Wiretapping with electrical induction can easily be accomplished with a tape recorder, microphone, AM/FM portable radio, a modem and a printer. The cassette recorder, through induction picks up the signal, amplifies it through the radio, perhaps acoustic coupling it through a modem which converts the analog signal to digital for printing. 4 Active Wiretapping is the monitoring and recording of data while the data is being transmitted over a communications link. TYPICAL HACKER ATTACKS CONTd

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