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Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting “Recognition of Non Formal and Informal.

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Presentation on theme: "Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting “Recognition of Non Formal and Informal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting Nordic Expert Validation Network Conference and Meeting “Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning in OECD Countries: Emerging Issues” Dr. Patrick Werquin OECD – D i r e c t o r a t e f o r E d u c a t i o n Conference Nordica Hotel, Reykjavík, 4-5 May 2007

3 Agenda for today - Background - Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why it doesn’t necessarily work? - Some evidence and concluding remarks Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

4 Agenda for today - Background - Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why it doesn’t necessarily work? - Some evidence and concluding remarks Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

5 Background -Lots of evidence about Recognition* of Non Formal and Informal Learning* (RNFIL), but piecemeal -OECD activity on Adult Learning° -OECD activity on the role of national qualifications systems in promoting lifelong learning -… Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

6 NQS and LLL. Good supplyExcellent supply ? NQS LLL This link is identified as mechanisms Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

7 Qualifications Systems - RNFIL = mechanism to create more and better lifelong learning - as well as: - credit transfer - qualifications framework*° - stakeholders involvement - … - Qualifications Systems: Bridges to Lifelong Learning (OECD, 2006) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

8 Example of Mechanism: Establishing a Qualification Framework Qualifications frameworks can make progression routes clear, remove dead ends and can bring coherence and quality assurance to qualifications systems. Individuals Individuals might be motivated to learn if they can be guided towards appropriate qualifications for their aspirations. They might also have confidence in nationally approved qualifications. Employers Employers will find a framework helpful in setting out qualification requirements for a job and in relating an applicant’s qualification profile to a standard reference point. It may help rationalise training provision. Providers Providers might find a framework of qualifications useful for promotional material as they can market qualifications according to a well-known structure and, like recruiters, they might feel more secure in the knowledge that certain qualifications are national benchmarks. Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

9 Another example of a mechanism: Recognising non formal and informal learning Recognition systems for non-formal and informal learning make explicit the value of learning that is not assessed as part of a formal learning programme. This kind of recognition can act as a safety net for those who have not yet fully engaged with learning. Individuals Individuals with relatively low levels of formal achievement might be motivated to enter programmes and continue learning if their knowledge, skills and wider competences acquired through experience can be recognised and used to reduce the costs of qualification. Employers Employers may see wider skills supply if more learning is recognised in the workforce. On the other hand this might lead to a reduction in commitment to formal training programmes. May be interested in spotting more motivated individuals, and therefore workers potentially more productive. Providers Providers may be encouraged to widen access to programmes if quality assured recognition systems are in place. Although there may be increased direct and indirect costs involved in recognising non-formal and informal learning. Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

10 Just Published Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

11 Adult Learning - Motivation is the key issue (Beyond Rhetoric, 2003, and Promoting Adult Learning, 2005) … since learning = waste of time and money => Don’t ask adults to start from scratch!!!!! Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07     

12 Literacy Level and Educational Attainment Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07 Among AdultsLow LiteracyHigh Literacy Low educational attainment High educational attainment 40% 10%

13 The OECD Activity - RNFIL is high on most countries’ agenda => “New” OECD activity on RNFIL: - 27 countries (21 BRs, 18 reviews) - One assumption: not always good (cost) - Research - Visits – fact finding approach - Data collection – if any - Methods: desk based research, thematic review and/or collaborative policy analysis Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

14 Definitions - Intentional learning: -Formal (organised, learning objectives, most of the time leads to a qualification*) -Non formal (does NOT usually lead to a qualification*, along side formal learning activities, semi structured) -Non intentional learning: -Informal (what we all do all the time without even knowing it, experiential) -RPL (Australia), PLAR (Canada), VAE (France), APL, APEL... -In Australia, they even made RPL a verb: “I will RPL you”, “not everybody can be RPLed”... Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

15 More Definitions  -Recognition, Validation, Certification Recognition => Validation => Certification => Recognition* -In Australia they even made L hlk Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

16 Definitions: Some Pieces of Advice -Don’t panic -Don’t waste too much time on them -Choose the ones that meets your needs for the following 2-3 years and stop re-addressing the issue all the time -If/whenever possible, use international definitions (OECD, 2007 – CEDEFOP/OECD, 2008) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

17 The OECD Activity But why do we need an OECD activity if it’s already on most countries’ agenda? Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

18 Why? -Because we need more research!!!! -Rationale of the OECD activity: -Economic benefits -Educational benefits -Social benefits -Psychological benefits -Purpose of the OECD activity: -Technical and institutional arrangements -Indicator, data* -Good – and bad – practice -Develop pilot models Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07 

19 Framework of the Activity -Institutional and technical arrangements -Governance (legal framework, QA…) -Cost (who pays?...) -Link to QS and QF (legitimacy, value, double currency…) -Assessment practice -Equity and social cohesion (Matthew effect, low skilled…) -Link to labour market (outcomes, SMEs*…) -Personal and social development (+ learning, promotion) -Stakeholders behaviour -Contextual factors -Demographic changes -Internationalisation (portability…) -New technologies (e-portfolio…) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

20 Statistical Annex Financial resources invested in recognition of non formal and informal learning Expenditure per participant in any programme of recognition of non formal and informal learning Characteristics of participants in the recognition process of non formal and informal learning Outcomes, for individuals, of participation in the recognition process Enterprises and employers Recognition providers Educational institutions Mobility and transition Broad types of non formal programmes that lead to recognition Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

21 Why? Above all, because RNFIL appears to be among the possible solutions to address key issues!!!! Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

22 Participating countries 22 countries on 5 continents (15 in Europe, 22 CBRs, 18 reviewed): Australia, Austria, Belgium-Flanders, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07 Iceland is not there!!! 

23 Agenda for today - Background Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why it doesn’t necessarily work? - Some evidence and concluding remarks Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

24 Why? - No more lifetime jobs (Japan???) -Demography (Ageing, labour force shortages, work after retirement age, labour market, education system, tertiary education…) - Skills mismatch (make skills visible for governments to organise learning provision; for individuals to perform well in the labour market and/or to (re)enter LLL system at the most optimal level) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

25 Why? - Inequities (women in labour market, gender issues in the VET initial system, immigrants: unqualified to make their skills visible as well as qualified to organise equivalencies) - Immigrants do fill some skills gaps – UK – but there maybe issues in terms of safety, security or health (Nurses) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

26 Why? -Migration and mobility in general (workers, students) - Second chance (identify skills of poorly qualified people to certify them) – safety net Second chance for NEET people, for instance Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

27 Why? -Impact/role of other devices/programmes (such as qualifications frameworks (EQF typically) set in motion – based on learning outcomes, also the essence of RNFIL) - May not create economic growth, but will help sustain it!!! Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

28 Agenda for today - Background - Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why it doesn’t necessarily work? -Some evidence and concluding remarks Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

29 Employers* -Employers may see wider skills supply if more learning is recognised in the workforce -May need workforce with qualifications (ISO, existing regulations and regulated labour market…) -On the other hand this might lead to a reduction in commitment to formal training programmes -Ownership of the standards will may remain an issue for a long time; going beyond the standards even more of an issue Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

30 Trade Unions - Sceptical – at best  - Shift of focus from learning to assessing Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

31 Providers of learning - Worried!!!! OF COURSE (US higher education institutions and universities) -Nevertheless, providers may be encouraged to widen access to programmes if quality assured recognition systems are in place -Documenting skills may save some subsystems (Folk high schools in Norway???) -Although there may be increased direct and indirect costs involved in recognising non-formal and informal learning -May create additional qualifications (Mexico) -Ownership of the standards Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

32 Providers of qualifications - OK!!!! OF COURSE -But same worries about cost… Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

33 Individuals -System not transparent -Access not easy -Information and guidance still lacking -Doesn’t happen for low qualified people – second Matthew effect => Individuals are not fully convinced yet Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

34 Governments - ??? - ??? (Hungary…) - We have to interest not only Ministry of Education, but also Ministries of Finance, Labour… It must have to do with employment and unemployment* Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

35 Agenda for today - Background - Why do we want to organise recognition programmes? - Why it doesn’t necessarily work? Some evidence and concluding remarks - Some evidence and concluding remarks Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

36 15 Country Background Reports and 4 Review Visits Done: First Evidence (1/3) -Mexico, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia -Labour market experience vs. Life experience -France (VAP in 1992->VAE in 2002), Iceland (working life?) -Importance of the economic context -Virtually no unemployment Norway, Iceland -Sustainability?? Usefulness?? -Qualifications framework: does it help? -Learning outcomes, EQF -Australia, Ireland, UK, South Africa... -Confusion between teachers and assessors, training? -Australia-Australia, Norway a bit better Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

37 15 Country Background Reports and 4 Review Visits Done: First Evidence (2/3) -Involvement of stakeholders: Key element -Norway, Iceland -Creation of intermediary qualification: Way out -Partial qualification -But also full qualification at intermediate level (Mexico) -Practical recognition vs. Formal recognition -Informal recognition  -UK, Australia -Information and guidance -vs. Complexity -Norway, Australia, Iceland Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

38 15 Country Background Reports and 4 Review Visits Done: First Evidence (3/3) -Need for a clear rationale and a [national] rhetoric -Is it always good to codify all kind of learning? -Why do countries want to do it??? -Norway, Australia, (Iceland?) -Existence of, or need for, a legal framework -A lot of countries have one (Iceland?) -Standards for validating -Education vs. Labour market -Ownerships of the standards -Occupations standards to be up-to-date so that qualifications based on occupational standards do have value for employers Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

39 Next Steps, Outcomes and Collaboration - Country and International Organisations Meeting, after Summer 2007, venue to be confirmed - Country Background Reports available before Summer (22) - Mexican and Norwegian Country Notes available soon - A glossary with CEDEFOP, draft available - Collaboration with UNESCO, World Bank, ILO and the EU Cluster on “Recognition of Learning Outcomes” (exchange of ideas, of data, of practice and cross participation of experts) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

40 m e r c i Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07

41 Participating countries, NQS -CBRs: Australia, Belgium (French speaking), Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, Switzerland and United Kingdom (15) -TGs: Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom (20) Patrick Werquin, Recognition of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Emerging Issues, NVL Conference, Reykjavík, 4 May 07


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