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Methods of Acquiring Knowledge

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Presentation on theme: "Methods of Acquiring Knowledge"— Presentation transcript:

1 Methods of Acquiring Knowledge
Tenacity Similar to superstitions May be promoted by “mere exposure” Problems with knowledge acquired by tenacity May be inaccurate Does not provide mechanism for correcting inaccurate knowledge Used in science when a researcher persists in the belief of a good idea

2 Intuition—knowing without reasoning
Used in forming some hypotheses (hunches) Problem—no mechanism for separating accurate from inaccurate knowledge Authority—facts stated from a respected source Can be used in the design phase of a study Problem—authority can be wrong

3 Rationalism—knowledge from reasoning
Used to derive hypotheses Empiricism—knowledge from experience Observation used to collect data in science Problem with this method of acquiring knowledge Perception of the cause of our experience can be biased

4 Science Just another way of acquiring knowledge
Assumed to be better than other methods Because it is void of bias Testing procedures open to public inspection Not just one universal method of science Methods of science has changed over the centuries

5 Advantage of the Scientific Method
Allows us to make objective observations Allows us to establish the superiority of one belief over another

6 Characteristics of the Scientific Approach
Control—eliminating the influence of extraneous variables Operationalism—representing constructs by a specific set of operations

7 Operationalism focuses on features used to represent a construct
Is essential for communication Are many different ways of representing constructs

8 Replication— reproduction of results Reasons for failure to replicate
By intergroup observations By intersubject observations By intrasubject observations Reasons for failure to replicate Effect doesn’t exist Replication study is not an exact replication

9 Objectives of Science Description—describing the variables
Explanation—identifying causes Prediction--forecasting Control Definition—manipulation of conditions that determine a phenomenon Different meanings of the word control Comparison Eliminating the influence of extraneous variables Guidance

10 Basic Assumption Underlying Science
Uniformity in nature or determinism Axioms underlying assumption of determinism Reality in nature Rationality—logical reason for events Regularity Discoverability

11 Role of Theory in Science
Summarize and integrate existing data Guide research

12 Role of Scientist in Science
Curiosity Patience Objectivity Change

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