2Learning processProvide learners with information regarding correctness of performance and provide refinement instructionsPractitioners must accurately analyze motor skills and figure out what to correct and how to correct it
3Limitations of Observations Learner may have developed an idiosyncratic techniqueIs the movement problematic from a biomechanics perspective?Tendency to focus on the outcome of the movementTendency to provide feedback only about those technical aspects of the skill that can be seenUnderlying processes are not directly observable – often overlooked when analyzing skill; is there a perceptual problem? Is there a cognitive problem?
4Conducting an Observation Identify purpose and key elements of the skillConduct a skill task analysisDetermine optimal viewing perspectiveView from multiple perspectives; step back or up close?Decide how many trials to observe for error diagnosis; multiple trials is preferredChoose whether or not to videotape; practitioner and learner can observe together; helps develop error detection ability
5Cause of errors Constraints Understanding the skill requirement Poor selection and slow response prepIncorrect response executionVisual and proprioception problems
7Errors Due to Constraints Developmental level;technique may be due to maturation and level of abilityEquipment; equipment weight, size of equipment, use of equipmentStructure of the task or drill; practice drill doesn’t meet level of ability or maturationChange in environment from closed to openFear
8Practical Application Based on the previous constraints, what kind of errors might you see from learners with whom you work/teach?
9Comprehension ErrorsOccur when a learner doesn’t understand the requirements of the skill or what you want them to doRe-explain the skillUse developmentally appropriate terminologyAvoid overloading with too much informationCheck for understanding
10Comprehension Errors During Skill Refinement If learner doesn’t understand what the error is or how it is being created; videotapeFocus attention on sensory consequences; vision, proprioceptionEngage learners performance evaluation;questionsIf learner understands the error but is uncertain about how to correct itContinue to demonstrate and provide feedbackTry guidance and/ or a simulator; assistive equipment
11Errors in SelectionMust be able to differentiate between moving slowly and initiating movement slowlySlow movement execution likely due to a problem with techniqueSlow movement initiation likely a perceptual or decision-making problem; response preparation is hindered; slow RT
12Perceptual Errors Occur when learner Doesn’t know what cues to look for in the environment ; what was going on in the environment?Can’t distinguish between task relevant and irrelevant stimuli ; limited attentional capacityFocuses his or her attention on the wrong cuesFails to look at information rich areas in the environment where critical cues occurArousal level not optimal; remember the inverted U?
13Corrections for Perceptual Errors Teach what the critical cues arePrompt learner to prepare response soonerDirecting learner’s attention to where in the environment the critical cues occurProviding extensive practice opportunities in a variety of situations that contain common task relevant cuesIncorporate strategies to optimize arousal level
14Practical Application What perceptual errors might you find in your work/teaching?How do you correct these errors?
15Decision Making Errors Select wrong motor program;wrong skillSelect right program but wrong parametersFails to reduce number of response alternatives:High uncertainty of response means higher possibility of incorrect responseFails to identify potential predictors: poor prediction of predictors could cause poor response prep and mistiming of response
16Corrections for Decision Making Errors Increase performer’s ability to identify and locate critical cuesDevelop stronger cause and effect relationship between specific cues and the appropriate responseTeach how to systematically look for key performance characteristics when assessing a situationTeach to identify potential predictors
17Recall ErrorsDifficulty remembering movements and strategies because of the passage of time between practice sessionsUnable to recall what to do in a given situationTrace decay? Retrieval problem from LTM?
18Correction of Recall Errors Provide remindersIncorporate attention focusing questioning strategiesE.g. “What are you going to focus on this time?”
19Errors in Neuromuscular Coordination Not enough practice time to establish the proper coordination; awkward, clumsy movementsLearner lacks underlying abilities; pp.13-14Learner lacks prerequisite skillsNegative transfer;previous skill interferes with current skillLearner consciously attends to the specifics of a skill normally performed automatically;thinking too much instead of just doing it
20Correction of Errors in Neuromuscular Coordination Have to be able to distinguish between what learners can do and what they knowProvide additional opportunities to practiceAddress physical deficits;ie. lack of strength, flexibilityGenetic deficiencies won’t be corrected, ie. poor RT/ manual dexterityReallocate attentional focus; through practice one doesn’t need to focus so much on the motor skill
21Execution Error: Telegraphing Learner reveals his or her intent allowing opponent to prepare in advanceTeach learners to conceal his or her intentions in order to increase opponent’s uncertainty
22Sensory Errors Limitations with sensory receptors Visual;poor lighting, obstructions, events occurring too fastProprioception; poor balance causing an error/fall; lack of control
23Corrections to sensory limitations Perform with good light situationsTeach performer to get optimal vantage pointDevelop proprioception by balance trainingBAPS boards, balance boards
24Should the Error be Corrected? Is the learner capable of making the correction?How much time is needed to make the correction?Is the learner motivated to make the correction?
25Practical Application Choose one:An accident victim has an above elbow amputation. A prosthetic has been fitted and the client is beginning physical therapy. Due to loss of proprioception the client will have difficulty learning to do skills that require hand/grip strength. What motor skill errors may occur as a result?A young student is having difficulty catching a ball that is thrown underhanded with a high arc. The ball often bounces off the student’s hands or chest. Why might the student be making these errors?What considerations should be made prior to deciding whether to correct a movement error?