Presentation on theme: "Diagnosing Errors Chapter 10. Learning process Provide learners with information regarding correctness of performance and provide refinement instructions."— Presentation transcript:
Diagnosing Errors Chapter 10
Learning process Provide learners with information regarding correctness of performance and provide refinement instructions Practitioners must accurately analyze motor skills and figure out what to correct and how to correct it
Limitations of Observations Learner may have developed an idiosyncratic technique – Is the movement problematic from a biomechanics perspective? Tendency to focus on the outcome of the movement – Tendency to provide feedback only about those technical aspects of the skill that can be seen Underlying processes are not directly observable – often overlooked when analyzing skill; is there a perceptual problem? Is there a cognitive problem?
Conducting an Observation Identify purpose and key elements of the skill – Conduct a skill task analysis Determine optimal viewing perspective – View from multiple perspectives; step back or up close? Decide how many trials to observe for error diagnosis; multiple trials is preferred Choose whether or not to videotape; practitioner and learner can observe together; helps develop error detection ability
Cause of errors Constraints Understanding the skill requirement Poor selection and slow response prep Incorrect response execution Visual and proprioception problems
Errors Due to Constraints Developmental level; technique may be due to maturation and level of ability Equipment; equipment weight, size of equipment, use of equipment Structure of the task or drill; practice drill doesn’t meet level of ability or maturation Change in environment from closed to open Fear
Practical Application Based on the previous constraints, what kind of errors might you see from learners with whom you work/teach?
Comprehension Errors Occur when a learner doesn’t understand the requirements of the skill or what you want them to do – Re-explain the skill – Use developmentally appropriate terminology – Avoid overloading with too much information – Check for understanding
Comprehension Errors During Skill Refinement If learner doesn’t understand what the error is or how it is being created; videotape – Focus attention on sensory consequences ; vision, proprioception – Engage learners performance evaluation ;questions If learner understands the error but is uncertain about how to correct it – Continue to demonstrate and provide feedback – Try guidance and/ or a simulator; assistive equipment
Errors in Selection Must be able to differentiate between moving slowly and initiating movement slowly – Slow movement execution likely due to a problem with technique – Slow movement initiation likely a perceptual or decision-making problem; response preparation is hindered; slow RT
Perceptual Errors Occur when learner – Doesn’t know what cues to look for in the environment ; what was going on in the environment? – Can’t distinguish between task relevant and irrelevant stimuli ; limited attentional capacity Focuses his or her attention on the wrong cues Fails to look at information rich areas in the environment where critical cues occur – Arousal level not optimal; remember the inverted U?
Corrections for Perceptual Errors Teach what the critical cues are Prompt learner to prepare response sooner Directing learner’s attention to where in the environment the critical cues occur Providing extensive practice opportunities in a variety of situations that contain common task relevant cues Incorporate strategies to optimize arousal level
Practical Application What perceptual errors might you find in your work/teaching? – How do you correct these errors?
Decision Making Errors Select wrong motor program; wrong skill Select right program but wrong parameters Fails to reduce number of response alternatives: – High uncertainty of response means higher possibility of incorrect response Fails to identify potential predictors : poor prediction of predictors could cause poor response prep and mistiming of response
Corrections for Decision Making Errors Increase performer’s ability to identify and locate critical cues Develop stronger cause and effect relationship between specific cues and the appropriate response Teach how to systematically look for key performance characteristics when assessing a situation Teach to identify potential predictors
Recall Errors Difficulty remembering movements and strategies because of the passage of time between practice sessions Unable to recall what to do in a given situation – Trace decay? Retrieval problem from LTM?
Correction of Recall Errors Provide reminders Incorporate attention focusing questioning strategies – E.g. “What are you going to focus on this time?”
Errors in Neuromuscular Coordination Not enough practice time to establish the proper coordination; awkward, clumsy movements Learner lacks underlying abilities; Look @ pp.13-14 Learner lacks prerequisite skills Negative transfer; previous skill interferes with current skill Learner consciously attends to the specifics of a skill normally performed automatically; thinking too much instead of just doing it
Correction of Errors in Neuromuscular Coordination Have to be able to distinguish between what learners can do and what they know Provide additional opportunities to practice Address physical deficits; ie. lack of strength, flexibility – Genetic deficiencies won’t be corrected, ie. poor RT/ manual dexterity Reallocate attentional focus ; through practice one doesn’t need to focus so much on the motor skill
Execution Error: Telegraphing Learner reveals his or her intent allowing opponent to prepare in advance Teach learners to conceal his or her intentions in order to increase opponent’s uncertainty
Sensory Errors Limitations with sensory receptors – Visual; poor lighting, obstructions, events occurring too fast – Proprioception; poor balance causing an error/fall; lack of control
Corrections to sensory limitations Perform with good light situations Teach performer to get optimal vantage point Develop proprioception by balance training – BAPS boards, balance boards
Should the Error be Corrected? Is the learner capable of making the correction? How much time is needed to make the correction? Is the learner motivated to make the correction?
Practical Application Choose one: – An accident victim has an above elbow amputation. A prosthetic has been fitted and the client is beginning physical therapy. Due to loss of proprioception the client will have difficulty learning to do skills that require hand/grip strength. What motor skill errors may occur as a result? – A young student is having difficulty catching a ball that is thrown underhanded with a high arc. The ball often bounces off the student’s hands or chest. Why might the student be making these errors? What considerations should be made prior to deciding whether to correct a movement error?