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Chapter 12- Quality By Design

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12- Quality By Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12- Quality By Design
Introduction Concurrent Engineering Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes Quality Function Deployment Design for Manufacture and Assembly Taguchi Methods Conclusion

2 Metrics for Design Quality
Percent of revenue from new products or services Percent of products capturing 50% or more of the market Percent of process initiatives yielding a 50% or more improvement in effectiveness Percent of suppliers engaged in collaborative design

3 Concurrent Engineering
The Design Process Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes What Concurrent Engineering Teams Do Benefits of Concurrent Engineering Concurrent Engineering Team Organization

4 What Concurrent Engineering Teams Do
Determine the overall character of the product, its design, and method of manufacture. Perform product functional analysis. Explore ways to improve producibility and usability. Design a process for product assembly and production control, and design the parts of the product to be compatible with the assembly process. Design the manufacturing processes for the product.

5 Benefits of Concurrent Engineering
Helps to understand the requirements of customers so that a better product acceptable to customers may be designed and made. Product development time is reduced since design and process planning activities are completed simultaneously. Design trade-offs, for example, between product features and production capabilities can be easily be facilitated with a view to improve the design.

6 Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes
- Costs incurred from cradle to grave - About 80% of product costs are committed in the design and development phase of a product. - Consequently, it is important to avoid mistakes early on in the design process. - The design and redesign process will require numerous engineering change orders that could be time consuming and lengthy. -

7 Fault Tree for Potato Chips

8 FMEA for Potato Chips Stale
FAILURE MODE CAUSE OF FAILURE EFFECT OF FAILURE CORRECTIVE ACTION Stale Low moisture content, expired shelf life, poor packaging Tastes bad, won’t crunch, thrown out, lost sales Add m cure longer, better package seal, shorter shelf life Broken Too thin, too brittle, rough handling, rough use, poor packaging Can’t dip, poor display, injures mouth, chocking, perceived as old, lost sales Change recipe, change process, change packaging Too Salty Outdated receipt, process not in control, uneven distribution of salt Eat less, drink more, health hazard, lost sales Experiment with recipe, experiment with process, introduce low salt version

9 Value Analysis (Value Engineering)
Ratio of value / cost Assessment of value : 1. Can we do without it? 2. Does it do more than is required? 3. Does it cost more than it is worth? 4. Can something else do a better job 5. Can it be made by less costly method, tools, material? 6. Can it be made cheaper, better or faster by someone else?

10 Design for Environment
Design from recycled material Use materials which can be recycled Design for ease of repair Minimize packaging Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal

11 Design for Environment

12 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Developed by Mitsubishi’s Kobe Shipyard in 1972 and was adopted by Toyota 1978 QFD is being used by numerous US companies now - This is a planning, communication, and documentation technique used to resolve design problems - Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements - Displays requirements in matrix diagrams - First matrix called “house of quality” - Series of connected houses

13 Design characteristics Customer requirements Competitive assessment
House of Quality Correlation matrix Design characteristics Customer requirements Target values Relationship matrix Competitive assessment Importance 1 2 3 4 5 6

14 Competitive Assessment
House of Quality Figure 3.8 Irons well Easy and safe to use Competitive Assessment Customer Requirements Presses quickly 9 B A X Removes wrinkles 8 AB X Doesn’t stick to fabric 6 X BA Provides enough steam AB X Doesn’t spot fabric 6 X AB Doesn’t scorch fabric 9 A XB Heats quickly 6 X B A Automatic shut-off ABX Quick cool-down 3 X A B Doesn’t break when dropped 5 AB X Doesn’t burn when touched 5 AB X Not too heavy 8 X A B

15 House of Quality Customer Requirements Presses quickly - - + + + -
Time required to reach 450º F Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Material used in soleplate Flow of water from holes Energy needed to press Thickness of soleplate Automatic shutoff Size of soleplate Number of holes Weight of iron Size of holes Customer Requirements Presses quickly Removes wrinkles Doesn’t stick to fabric Provides enough steam Doesn’t spot fabric Doesn’t scorch fabric Heats quickly Automatic shut-off Quick cool-down Doesn’t break when dropped Doesn’t burn when touched Not too heavy Irons well Easy and safe to use

16 House of Quality + - Figure 3.10 Protective cover for soleplate
Time to go from 450º to 100º Time required to reach 450º Material used in soleplate Flow of water from holes Energy needed to press Thickness of soleplate Automatic shutoff Size of soleplate Number of holes Weight of iron Size of holes - +

17 Design For Manufacturing and Assembly
Design Axioms DFM Guide Lines DFA Principles Fully Exploiting DFMA

18 Taguchi Methods Robust Design Taguchi Approach to Design
Planned Experimentation Design of Experiments DOE and DFMA for Process Improvement Orthogonal Arrays Quality Loss Criticism of Taguchi

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