Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12- Quality By Design Introduction Concurrent Engineering Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes Quality Function Deployment Design for Manufacture."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12- Quality By Design Introduction Concurrent Engineering Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes Quality Function Deployment Design for Manufacture and Assembly Taguchi Methods Conclusion
Metrics for Design Quality 1.Percent of revenue from new products or services 2.Percent of products capturing 50% or more of the market 3.Percent of process initiatives yielding a 50% or more improvement in effectiveness 4.Percent of suppliers engaged in collaborative design
Concurrent Engineering The Design Process Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes What Concurrent Engineering Teams Do Benefits of Concurrent Engineering Concurrent Engineering Team Organization
What Concurrent Engineering Teams Do Determine the overall character of the product, its design, and method of manufacture. Perform product functional analysis. Explore ways to improve producibility and usability. Design a process for product assembly and production control, and design the parts of the product to be compatible with the assembly process. Design the manufacturing processes for the product.
Benefits of Concurrent Engineering Helps to understand the requirements of customers so that a better product acceptable to customers may be designed and made. Product development time is reduced since design and process planning activities are completed simultaneously. Design trade-offs, for example, between product features and production capabilities can be easily be facilitated with a view to improve the design.
Life-Cycle Costs and Engineering Changes Life-Cycle Costs - Costs incurred from cradle to grave - About 80% of product costs are committed in the design and development phase of a product. - Consequently, it is important to avoid mistakes early on in the design process. - The design and redesign process will require numerous engineering change orders that could be time consuming and lengthy. -
Fault Tree for Potato Chips
FMEA for Potato Chips Stale Low moisture content, expired shelf life, poor packaging Tastes bad, won’t crunch, thrown out, lost sales Add m cure longer, better package seal, shorter shelf life Broken Too thin, too brittle, rough handling, rough use, poor packaging Can’t dip, poor display, injures mouth, chocking, perceived as old, lost sales Change recipe, change process, change packaging Too Salty Outdated receipt, process not in control, uneven distribution of salt Eat less, drink more, health hazard, lost sales Experiment with recipe, experiment with process, introduce low salt version FAILURE MODECAUSE OF FAILUREEFFECT OF FAILURECORRECTIVE ACTION
Value Analysis (Value Engineering) Ratio of value / cost Ratio of value / cost Assessment of value : Assessment of value : 1. Can we do without it? 2. Does it do more than is required? 3. Does it cost more than it is worth? 4. Can something else do a better job 5. Can it be made by less costly method, tools, material? 6. Can it be made cheaper, better or faster by someone else?
Design for Environment Design from recycled material Design from recycled material Use materials which can be recycled Use materials which can be recycled Design for ease of repair Design for ease of repair Minimize packaging Minimize packaging Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal
Design for Environment
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) -Developed by Mitsubishi’s Kobe Shipyard in 1972 and was adopted by Toyota QFD is being used by numerous US companies now -This is a planning, communication, and documentation technique used to resolve design problems -Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements - Displays requirements in matrix diagrams - First matrix called “house of quality” - Series of connected houses
House of Quality Correlation matrix Design characteristics Customer requirements Target values Relationship matrix Competitive assessment Importance
House of Quality Figure 3.8 Irons well Easy and safe to use Competitive Assessment Customer Requirements Customer Requirements12345 X Presses quickly9BAX X Removes wrinkles8ABX X Doesn’t stick to fabric6XBA X Provides enough steam8ABX X Doesn’t spot fabric6XAB X Doesn’t scorch fabric9AXB X Heats quickly6XBA X Automatic shut-off3ABX X Quick cool-down3XAB X Doesn’t break when dropped5ABX X Doesn’t burn when touched5ABX X Not too heavy8XAB
House of Quality Energy needed to press Weight of iron Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º F Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff Customer Requirements Presses quickly Removes wrinkles+++++ Doesn’t stick to fabric-++++ Provides enough steam++++ Doesn’t spot fabric+--- Doesn’t scorch fabric+++-+ Heats quickly--+- Automatic shut-off+ Quick cool-down--++ Doesn’t break when dropped++++ Doesn’t burn when touched++++ Not too heavy Irons well Easy and safe to use
House of Quality Figure 3.10 Energy needed to press Weight of iron Size of soleplate Thickness of soleplate Material used in soleplate Number of holes Size of holes Flow of water from holes Time required to reach 450º Time to go from 450º to 100º Protective cover for soleplate Automatic shutoff
Design For Manufacturing and Assembly Design Axioms DFM Guide Lines DFA Principles Fully Exploiting DFMA
Taguchi Methods Robust Design Taguchi Approach to Design Planned Experimentation Design of Experiments DOE and DFMA for Process Improvement Orthogonal Arrays Quality Loss Criticism of Taguchi