Presentation on theme: "DIABETES Educational session for patients at PEARL MEDICAL PRACTICE"— Presentation transcript:
1DIABETES Educational session for patients at PEARL MEDICAL PRACTICE Dr P Mehta2nd July 2013
2It’s a big problem!Diabetes is an important medical condition that causes a lot of illness and deathsAround 3.75 million people have it and approximately 7 million people are at a high risk of getting it.Lots of people don’t know they have it.In the UK about 1 in 5 people over 65 have diabetes
3What is diabetes?Diabetes is when the level of sugar in your blood becomes higher than what is considered normal.Mainly 2 types of diabetesType 1: Less common, diagnosed mostly when young, need insulin injectionsType 2: More common, normally occurs later in life, treated with tablets or insulin
4Why does the sugar level go up? The body makes a hormone called INSULIN. Insulin helps to keep our glucose levels within a safe range by making cells in the body take up glucose in the bloodIn diabetes the following happensType 1: The body doesn’t produced any insulinType 2: The body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the insulin doesn’t work properly.
6Type 2 Diabetes More common Onset is usually later in life (after 40) but can happen at any timeThe body doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin it makes doesn’t work properly (insulin resistance).Lots of risk factors that are in your control so you can do something to help reduce your risk.
7Risk factors for Diabetes Non-modifiable risk factors (things that are not in your control)Genetics: increased risk if a 1st degree relative has diabetesEthnicity: more common in people from S.Asian and Afro-carribean backgrounds.
8Risk factors continued Modifiable risk factors (things that you can do something about)Weight; being overweight increased your risk as does carrying weight around your middleLack of exercise and physical inactivityOther medical problems like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, previous heart attack or stroke
9How would I know if I have diabetes? Taken from made4all.com
10Other symptoms Blurry vision Recurrent skin infections Wounds/cuts that are slow to healUnexpected weight lossLoss of feeling or burning in the feetSome people will have NO symptoms
11Testing for Diabetes Normally we do a fasting blood sugar level. If the level is borderline you would be asked to do a glucose tolerance test to see if you are1. Normal2. Borderline (impaired fasting glucose)3. Diabetic
12Why must you get treatment? Taken from reversediabetes2.com
13TreatmentDepending on how severe your diabetes is when it is picked upDiet only; if you diabetes is ‘mild’, then you can have a trial of trying to control your sugars by addressing your diet, doing more exercise and making lifestyle changesMedications: If your diabetes is significant you will need to take medications
14Medications Medications There are many medications around which work on the insulin that you still have in your body to try and make it more effective at controlling your sugar levelsNot everyone needs insulin, but if after maximising all oral treatments then insulin may be the only next best option
15MonitoringIf you are diabetic we monitor you diabetes control by checking something call HBa1c. This gives us an indication of well your sugar control has been in the last 3 months.If you do not have diabetes but were deemed to be borderline we would check this on a yearly basis unless you had symptoms in which case we would do it sooner.
16Annual checks for diabetes Bloods – check your sugar control, cholesterol and kidneysEye check – to see if there is any damage to the back of the eyesFeet check – check that the blood supply and nerves to the feet are in tactGeneral health check; medications, lifestyle, diet, how you are copingUrine check – to see if there is any sign of kidney diseaseMust take the flu vaccination as you would be high risk of infections.
17What can I do? Eat well More exercise Stop smoking Cut down on fatty foods, sugary foods and drinks, fried foods, foods high in fat contentEat more fruit and veg, pulses, lentils, fish, wholegrain pasta’s and riceMore exerciseHelps reduce blood glucose levelsAim for 20-30mins a day 5 times a weekStop smokingDon’t add to the problems that you have. Smoking and diabetes increase your risk of many serious problems like heart attacks, stroke.
18Ive already got diabetes so theres no point?! NO! Its never too late to make changesEven if you have diabetes, eating better, increasing your physical activity levels, stopping smoking, taking medications and attending your check ups willHelp control your diabetes and stop it getting worse and worseHelp prevent serious complications