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The Book of Leviticus: Why It Matters to Christians

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1 The Book of Leviticus: Why It Matters to Christians
“Day Of Atonement” Leviticus 16 References: Primary Dr. Constable’s Notes on Leviticus. Secondary International Study Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Matthew Henry Commentary JFB Commentary

2 Announcements Announcements

3 Prayer List Prayer List

4 Leviticus Week Date Topic 1 08 Sep 10 Leviticus Introduction 2
Sacrifices: Leviticus 1-7 3 22 Sep 10 Priesthood of Aaron: Leviticus 8-10 4 29 Sep 10 Ritual Cleanliness: Leviticus 11-15 5 06 Oct 10 Day of Atonement: Leviticus 16 6 13 Oct 10 Holiness of Conduct: Leviticus 17-20 7 20 Oct 10 Holiness of Priests: Leviticus 21-22 8 27 Oct 10 Sabbath and Feasts: Leviticus 23 9 03 Nov 10 Preparation and Punishments: Leviticus 24 10 10 Nov 10 Sanctification of the Land: Leviticus 25 11 17 Nov 10 Promises and Warnings: Leviticus 26 12 24 Nov 10 Thanksgiving 13 01 Dec 10 Vows and Redemption of Tithes: Leviticus 27

5 Today’s Objectives Review the last week’s lesson from last week
Look at various terms used in today’s lesson Review the “old way” that sins were atoned through the annual Day of Atonement Examine the ceremonies that the high priest was to undertake to ensure the sacrifice was worthy Learn about the duty of the people and the promise of God Learn about the “new way” in which sins are atoned as outlined in Hebrews 9

6 Last week Reviewed last week’s lesson
Learned how the concept expressed in Leviticus 10:10 translate into laws found Leviticus 11-15 Reviewed possible sources of uncleanness and how God requires purification Learned about acceptable and unacceptable animals Learned about uncleanness due to childbirth Learned about uncleanness due to skin diseases Learned about uncleanness caused by the body

7 Tabernacle

8 Tabernacle Ark Laver Altar of burn offering

9 Altar

10 10


12 Early Israelite Timeline
1875 BC Jacob Moves to Egypt Israelites Enslaved 1845 BC Mosaic Covenant 1446 BC Exodus Conquest of Promised Land 1395 BC Early Israelite Timeline Egypt 430 Years in Egypt (Ex 12:40-41; Gal 3:17) 400Years of Bondage (Gen 15:13, 16; Acts 7:6) About 450 Years of bondage, wandering, and conquests (Acts 13:19-20)

13 Key To Studying Leviticus
We must examine the messages and determine what the passage represents in order to see the riches God has for us Does the passage provide a spiritual truth? Is this passage or verse a picture of New Testament spiritual truth that we obey today? If it is, is that its only importance? If this answer is yes, once we have determined the meaning of the picture, our interpretation is finished If not, then we ask if it is a moral or physical command 13

14 Key To Studying Leviticus
Is it a moral or physical command: Why did God give this verse/passage to the Israelites? Is the command reflective of God's moral nature, and therefore one we need to follow, even today? Did he want them to be different from the people around them? If so, is the specific command relevant for us today, so that we might be different? Did God give the command to them for health reasons? If so, is it relevant today? If we conclude that the specific command is not relevant for us, we must ask, What is the principle behind the commands of God? How does the principle apply to us? 14

15 Sacrifices To God God designed these offering to
Enable the Israelites to worship God Taught the Israelites conditions necessary to restore and maintain the believers’ communion with God in view of their sin and defilement Each offering involved three objects The person bringing the offering The object being offered (animal, for example) The mediator (priest) Differences in offerings Each offering was different from the other offerings Within each offering there were different options of what the offerer could present and how he could present it 15

16 Overview of Leviticus 16 Sin Offering Sin offering
“...for sin is the transgression of the law.” 1 Jn 3:4 “All unrighteousness is sin.” 1 Jn 5:17 Offering That which is presented as atonement, e.g. a sacrifice Sin offering Sacrifice for unrighteousness Almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without the shedding of blood is there is no remission (Heb 9:22) Lets discuss the old way versus the new way 16

17 Overview of Leviticus 16 Sacrifices and offerings that Moses described in the Law up to this point were not sufficient to cleanse all the defilements of the people Significant sinfulness and uncleanness still needed removing God appointed a yearly sacrifice that cleansed all the sins and impurities not covered by other means that the Israelites committed ignorantly (Heb. 9:7) The sacrifice of the Day of Atonement was, in this sense, the most comprehensive of the Mosaic sacrifices 17

18 Chapter 16 Overview Final chapter of the first part of Leviticus that deals with the public worship of the Israelites The second major part of Leviticus begins at the end of this chapter and reveals the private worship of the Israelites Legislation that God prescribed shortly after and in view of the apostasy of Nadab and Abihu Information about how the high priest must behave to preserve himself from a similar fate Day of Atonement, or Great Day of Forgiveness, took place six months after the Passover 18

19 Introduction (16:1-10) Introduction to the Day of Atonement legislation (16:1-2) Moses received instructions regarding the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur immediately after the judgment of Nadab and Abihu As usual, God revealed these laws to Moses, not directly to the priests or even the high priest, Aaron Even the high priest was not to enter the presence of God in the holy of holies Instruction about when and how Moses could enter and approach God Now He dwells within each Christian (John 14:17; Rom. 8:9; 1 Cor. 12:13) 19

20 Requirements for Ceremonies (16:3-5)
High priest had to make elaborate preparations for entering the holy of holies Cleansing himself spiritually and physically Offerings made were a bull as a sin offering and a ram as a burnt offering, both to cover own sins (Heb. 5:3) Also had to wear a special uniform, not the ornate garments that he usually wore to carry out his regular duties Bathe himself The high priest entered the holy of holies only once each year on the Day of Atonement to make these special sacrifices (Heb. 9:7) 20

21 Outline of Ceremonies (16:6-10)
Aaron first offered the bull as a sin (purification) offering to cover his sins and the sins of the other priests (v. 6) He cast lots to decide which of the two goats would die as a sin offering for the people and which one would be sent into the wilderness (vv. 7-8) Then he sacrificed the goat that was to die (v. 9) The “scapegoat” Finally he brought the other goat before the Lord and then dispatched it into the wilderness (v. 10) 21

22 Instructions for the Ritual (16:11-28)
Blood-sprinkling ceremony (16:11-19) Purification offering that Aaron was to offer for himself and the other priests Incense smoke used to mask his view of God’s presence Casting of lots over the goats Sacrificing one of the goats (vs ) As a sin offering for the people Cleansed sanctuary of defilement caused by sins of the people Making it possible for God to continue to dwell there Sprinkling of blood on the mercy seat removed the sins of the people (seven times) 22


24 Scapegoat (16:20-22) Second goat symbolically bears the sins of the people Taking the sins to an unclean place, far from God Hebrew word used to describe the goat was “Azazel” Goat of removal Some believe it described a desolate physical location where the goat would perish, taking the sins with it Others believed it referred to a demon to whom the Israelites sins were returned so it would not accuse them Goats represented two aspects of atonement Goat slain represented judgment Goat released represented removal of own guilt 24

25 Cleansing of Participants (16:23-28)
Describes rituals for cleansing those who came in contact with the sacrifices Contrasts the holiness of God and the sinfulness of man All elements of the ceremony were to be followed closely 25

26 Duty of the People (16:29-34) Instructions for the yearly celebration of the Day of Atonement Read Heb 9:7-12 Israelites were to humble their souls and refrain from work in preparation for this event Included fasting (read Isa 58:3 to see what happens in the future) and no work Promise of God Atonement will be made for your, to cleanse you (v. 30) Could enjoy the assurance of fellowship with God God promised forgiveness and cleansing to all who trusted in the value of the sacrifices He provides 26

27 Hebrew 9 Earthly Tabernacle as a comparison (vs. 1-10)
Describes the ceremonies in the Tabernacle as external regulations applying until the time of the “new order” Blood of Christ (vs ) Christ as the High Priest Went through a greater and more perfect tabernacle, one not made by man (vs. 11) He entered the Most Holy Place not by the blood of goats or calves, but by his own blood (vs. 12) The blood of Christ provided the inward cleansing, or the cleansing of our souls, from acts that lead to death Therefore, Christ is the appointed, once and for all, to do away with sin by His own sacrifice (vs 26) 27

28 Day of Atonement in Israel
Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Rabbis looked for ways to preserve the rituals from the Day of Atonement for future generations Could not continue the Day of Atonement without the temple So, they substituted prayer, repentance, and giving to charity for sacrifices and rituals that could no longer be practiced Descriptions of the former rituals of Yom Kippur (now called Avodah) can be found in a special prayer book used for Yom Kippur (found in the mahtzor) 28

29 Review Reviewed last week’s lesson
Learned relevant terms used in Leviticus 16 and in Hebrew 9 Learned about the ceremonies that the high priest conducted in order to take part in the day of atonement Learned about the duty of the people Learned about the promise God made to the people Reviewed Hebrews 9 and learned about Christ’s atonement for our sins Next week Leviticus 17-20

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