Criticism of Liturgical Texts Codicology –MS “shelf mark” –Codex/scroll [e.g. R c1p p2c TP p3c | c4p p5c c6p p7c R] –Gatherings [e.g. IV R r1v r2v TP r3v | r4v r5v r6v r7v R] –Cover –Line pattern [e.g. page (4/5); vertical line patterns: from L edge to first line = 4/9 of a unit writing from end of writing to R edge = 1 unit; horizontal line patterns: from top to first line of writing = 2/3 of a unit writing from last line of writing to bottom = 1 unit] –Ink
Köln, Dombibliothek, Codex 88. [http://www.ceec.uni-koeln.de/] Shelf Mark: "Codex 88 nunc / Codex 106 olim…” Title: Sacramentary Date: 3rd – 4 th quarter of the 10 th C. [Deshusses, end of 9 th or beginning of 10 th C] Place of Origin: Fulda, Trier Language: Latin Writing Surface: Vellum Gatherings: , i 10, ii 6, iii 8, iv 8+2 (singles added at front and after 3rd [25 and 29; 29 added 12/13c]), v-xxi 8, xxii 6+3 (one singles after 4th and two singles at end; central bifolium 173/174 and singles 178-179 may have been added to codex for additional texts), . Quire signatures I, II, II (on iii, corr. ex III), III (on iv, corr. ex IIII), V(vi).
Line Pattern: Written space: 185 x 125 mm. 17- 21 lines. ¶ Long lines. Dry-point ruling prickings visible on a few folia. text above top line Numbering: Numbered 1-179 by modern hand. Contents: –Fol.1r - 2r Preaching on the eucharistic consecration (12 th C)1r2r –Fol.2v Officium Sanctae Petronillae et Scholasticae (11 th C)2v –Fol.3r - 8v Kalendarium (11 th C) with particular observances of Cologne from the 12 th C3r8v –Fol.9r - 10v Litanies9r10v –Fol.11r - 15v Prayers11r15v –Fol.15v - 24v Mass formularies15v24v
–Fol.25r - 104v Sacramentarium [Gregorianum] Hadrianum25r104v –Fol.105r - 156r Sacramentarium Hadrianum revised by Benedict of Aniane with a supplement (the so-called "Hucusque" of Alcuin). here attributed to Abbot Grimoldus. The short preface "Haec studiose“. Prefaces and Episcopal Blessings.105r156r –Fol.156v - 177r Appendix with Alcuin’s Votive Masses "Die dominica missa de sancta trinitate. Omnipotens sempiterne deus qui dedisti... ")156v177r –Fol.177v - 179v Prayers and Blessings (12 th C)177v179v Incipit: Sermo s(an)c(t)i [i.f. Rasur, dann] utru(m) sub figura... Explicit:...Pat(er) nost(er). Oremus. Or(atio).
Paleography –Identification of type of writing [cf. B. Bischoff, Paläographie des römischen Altertums unde des abendländischen Mittelalters (Berlin, 1986)] –Abbreviations and ligatures [cf. A. Cappell, Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane (Milan, 1961 6 )] –Number assigned to each textual unit –Words separated; abbreviations and ligatures written out –Each letter is transcribed as recognized in the MS –Identification of “hands”, corrections, glosses –Capitalization and punctuation –Folios indicated –Hypothetical reconstructions –Palimpsests –Musical Notation –Illumination
Carolingian script Main hand in style of Fulda, others of Trier. One main hand ff. 3r-15r, 26v-171v (except 29r-v), 175r-177r plus 10 additional hands 6- to 13-line decorated initials ff.25v - 26r, 30r, and63v (interlace, gold and silver on purple field, framed by columns, first lines also on field, hierarchy of square capitals, uncials and rustic capitals);25v26r30r63v Some smaller gold and interlace initials ff.30v - 38r;30v38r Incidental initials red or gold; Tituli in red uncials for text of main hand, in rustic capitals, uncials or minuscules for other hands; 15 lines in rustic capitals plus 5 in uncials f.25r, alternate lines red and black.25r
[f.25r] IN CHRISTI NOMINE. INCIPIT LIBER SA- CRAMENTORUM DE CIRCULO ANNI A SANCTO GREGO- RIO PAPA ROMANO EDITUS. QUALITER MISSA RO- MANA CELEBRATUR. HOC EST INPRIMIS INTROITUM QUALIS FUERIT STATUTIS TEMPORIBUS SIVE DIEBUS FESTIS SEU COTIDIANIS. DEINDE KYRIE. ITEM DI- CITUR GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO. SI EPISCOPUS AFFUERIT
DIE DOMINICO, SIVE DIEBUS FESTIS. QUAN- DO VERO LAETANIA AGITUR NEQUE GLORIA IN EX- CELSIS DEO NEQUE ALLELUIA CANTATUR. POSTMODUM SEQUITUR ORATIO. DEINDE LEGITUR APOSTOLUS. ITEM GRADALEM SEU ALLELUIA. POSTMODUM LEGITUR EVANGELIUM. DEINDE OF- FERTORIUM. ET DICITUR ORATIO SUPER OBLATAM.
QUA COMPLETA DICIT SACERDOS EXCELSA VOCE PER OMNIA SECULA SECULORUM. RESPONSUM. AMEN. DOMINUS VOBISCUM. RESPONSUM. ET CUM SPIRITU TUO. SURSUM CORDA. RESPONSUM. HABEMUS AD DOMINUM. GRATIAS AGAMUS DOMINO DEO NOSTRO. RESPONSUM. DIGNUM ET IUSTUM EST.
[f. 25v] PRAEFATIO. Vere dignum et iustum est, aequum et salutare, nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, domine sancte pater omnipotens aeterne deus, per christum dominum nostrum. Per quem maistatem tuam landant angeli, adorant dominationes, tremunt potestates, caeli caelorumque virtutes ac beata seraphin socia exultatione concelebrant.
[f. 26r] Cum quibus et nostras voces, ut admitti iubeas deprecamur, supplici confessione dicentes: Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus…. [Gloss: Sacerdos osculet altare postea crucifixum dicens Te igitur etc.] TE IGITUR CLEMENTISSIME PATER PER IESUM christum filium tuum dominum nostrum
Textual Alterations –Involuntary = errors Due to sight (haplography, dittography) Due to dictation and hearing –Homophony, e.g., preces/praeces, –Alternation of sound, e.g., creatur/creator –Environmental phonetic conditioning, e.g., salba/salva Due to ignorance (grammatical, syntactical, theological errors) Due to psychological factors –Inversions: Iesus Christus/Christus Iesus –Metatheses: praecipio/percipio –Harmonizations) –Voluntary = variants Literary (stylistic amplification or simplification) Hermeneutical (expansions, replacement of terms, alteration of meaning) Theological
MS Genealogy –For liturgical MSS: not reconstructing the lineage that leads to an archetype, reconstructing a segment of lineage that places the MS in a family leading to a model –After collecting similar MSS, one examines the textual alterations (errors and variants) in each Conjunctive errors-variants shared among MSS make them related Disjunctive errors-variants separate groups of MSS –Lineage determined by conjunctive/disjunctive errors and variants + dating of MSS through scripts and inks –Lineage may be linear, divaricate, or branched Capital letters of the Latin alphabet indicate existing MSS Small letters of the Greek alphabet indicate hypothetical MSS
Textual Criticism = Recomposition of a liturgical text, with errors corrected, according to the final redaction of the text itself –Rule 1: leave the order of the texts as it is, unless there are proofs to the contrary from codicology –Rule 2: each text is respected for what it is and any comparison with texts of more archaic MSS serves for the correction of errors and not for the modification of variants –External Rules: Rule 3: The best-documented reading is the most original, taking into account the identity and the connection among the MSS Rule 4: The influence of parallel texts (euchological, biblical, patristic) of the connected readings and of the theological mentality must be taken into account
Rule 5: Consideration must be given to the cursus and the concinnitas (grammar, syntax, phraseology, sentence division) –Internal Rules: Rule 6: The more difficult rule has the greater probability of being the original Rule 7: The shorter reading has the greater probability of being the original Rule 8: The preferred reading ought to be in harmony with the context Rule 9: The other variants should be explained by the preferred reading
Reconstructing Roman Rite Papal Eucharist on Easter Sunday c. 700 CE
Written Sources Sacramentaries –Verona collection of libelli missarum (Leonine / Verona sacramentary) (Verona, Bibl. Capt. 85) c. 545- 555 CE –Old Gelasian Sacramentary (BAV, vat. Reg. 316 + Paris, BN, lat. 7193) c. 8 th C at Chelles –Gregorian Sacramentary [Hadrianum] c. 784-791 Lectionaries –Capitularia lectionum (epistolary) –Capitularia evangeliorum (evangeliary) –Capitularia (Comes of Wurzburg)
Chant collections –Cantatorium of Monza (8 th C) –Antiphonary of Rheinau (8 th – 9 th C) –Antiphonary of Mont-Blandin (8 th – 9 th C) –Antiphonary of Compiègne (9 th C) –Antiphonary of Corbie (9 th – 10 th C) –Antiphonary of Senlis (9 th C) Rubrical instructions –Ordo Romanus Primus
Text: The Roman Canon (GeV 1224) Priest: The Lord [be] with you [pl]. People: And with your spirit. Priest: Up with your hearts. People: We have them to the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God People: It is fitting and right.
Priest: It is truly fitting and right, our duty and our salvation, that we should always and everywhere give you thanks, Lord, holy Father, almighty eternal God, through Christ our Lord. [Variable body] Through whom angels praise your majesty, dominions adore, powers fear, the heavens and the heavenly hosts and the blessed seraphim, joining together in exultant celebration. We pray you, bid our voices also to be admitted with theirs, beseeching you, confessing, and saying: People: Holy….
Te igitur We therefore pay and beseech you, most merciful Father, through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, to accept and bless these gifts, these offerings, these holy and unblemished sacrifices; above all, those which we offer to you for your holy catholic Church; vouchsafe to grant it peace, protection, unity, and guidance throughout the world, together with your servant N. our pope, and N. our bishop, and all orthodox upholders of the catholic and apostolic faith.
Memento Domine Remember, Lord, your servants, men and women, and all who stand around, whose faith and devotion are known to you, for whom we offer to you, or who offer to you this sacrifice of praise for themselves and for all their own, for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of their salvation and safety, and pay their vows to you, the living, true, and eternal God.
Communicantes In fellowship with [festival embolism] and venerating above all the memory of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, mother of God and our Lord Jesus Christ, and also of your blessed apostles and martyrs Peter, Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddaeus, Linus, Cletus, Clement, Xystus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Lawrence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and all your saints; by their merits and prayers grant us to be defended in all things by the help of your protection; through Christ our Lord.
Hanc igitur Therefore, Lord, we pray you graciously to accept this offering made by us your servants, and also by your whole family; and to order our days in peace; and to command that we are snatched from eternal damnation and numbered among the flock of your elect; through Christ our Lord.
Quam oblationem Vouchsafe, we beseech you, O God, to make this offering wholly blessed, approved, ratified, reasonable, and acceptable; that is may become to us the body and blood of your dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ our Lord;
Qui pridie Who, on the day before he suffered, took bread in his holy and reverend hands, lifted up his eyes to heaven to you, O God, his almighty Father, gave thanks to you, blessed, broke, and gave it to his disciples, saying: “Take and eat from this, all of you; for this is my body.” Likewise after supper, taking also this glorious cup in his holy and reverend hands, again he gave thanks to you, blessed and gave it to his disciples, saying: “Take and drink from it, all of you; for this is the cup of my blood, of the new and eternal covenant, the mystery of faith, which will be shed for you and for the many for forgiveness of sins. As often as you do this, you will do it for my remembrance.”
Unde et memores Therefore also, Lord, we your servants, and also your holy people, having in remembrance the blessed Passion of your Son Christ our Lord, likewise his resurrection from the dead, and also his glorious ascension into heaven, do offer to your excellent majesty from your gifts and bounty a pure victim, a holy victim, an unspotted victim, the holy bread of eternal life and the cup of everlasting salvation.
Supra quae Vouchsafe to look upon them with a favorable and kindly countenance, and accept them as you vouchsafed to accept the gifts of your righteous servant Abel, and the sacrifice of our patriarch Abraham, and that which your high priest Melchizedek offered to you, a holy sacrifice, an unblemished victim.
Supplices te We humbly beseech you, almighty God, bid these things be borne by the hands of your angel to your altar on high, in the sight of your divine majesty, that all of us who have received the most holy body and blood of your Son by partaking at this altar may be filled with all heavenly blessing and grace; through Christ our Lord.
Memento etiam Remember also, Lord, the names of those who have gone before us with the sign of faith, and sleep in the sleep of peace. We beseech you to grant to them and to all who rest in Christ a place of restoration, light, and peace; through Christ our Lord.
Nobis quoque To us sinners your servants also, who trust in the multitude of your mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part and fellowship with your holy apostles and martyrs, with John, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicity, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and all your saints into whose company we ask that you will admit us, not weighing our merit, but bounteously forgiving; through Christ our Lord.
Per quem Through him, Lord, you ever create, sanctify, quicken, bless, and bestow all these good things upon us. Through him and with him and in him all honor and glory is yours, God the Father almighty, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, through all the ages of ages. Amen.
Other Presidential Texts for Christmas ITEM DE UIGILIA DOMINI IN NOCTE THE SAME OF THE VIGIL OF THE LORD AT NIGHT Deus, qui hanc sacratissimam noctem ueri luminis fecisti inlustratione clariscere, da, quaesumus, ut cuius lucis mysterium in terra cognouimus, eius quoque gaudiis in caelo perfruamur: per. God, who have made this most holy night radiant with the illumination of the true lifht, grant, we ask, that the mystery of whose light we acknowledge on earth, we might indeed follow to his joys in heaven: through.
Concede, quaesumus, omnipotens deus, ut unigeniti tui noua per carnem nativitas liberet, quos sub peccati iugo uetusta seruitus tenet: per. Grant, we ask, almighty God, that the new birth of your only-begotten through the flesh might free those who ancient slavery holds under the yoke of sin: through.
SECRETA. Munera nostra, domine, quaesumus, natiuitatis hodiernae mysteriis apta perueniant, ut sicut homo genitus id est praefulsit et deus, sic nobis haec terrena substantia conferat quod diuinum est: per. SECRET. May our offerings, Lord, we pray, become fit for the mysteries of today’s birth, so that just as the one was born (that is shone forth) as man and God, so this earthly substance might confer what is divine upon us: through.
Uere dignum et iustum est, aequum et salutare: cuius diuinae natiuitatis potentiam ingenitam uirtutis tuae genuit magnitudo. Quem semper filium et ante tempora aeterna generatum, quia tibi pleno atque perfecto aeternae patris nomen non defuit, praedicamus. Uerum etiam honore maiestate atque uirtute aequalem tibi cum sancto spiritu confitemur, dum trino uocabulo unicam credimus maiestatem. Quem laudant angeli.
Truly it is right and just, proper and salutary…: the unbegotten power of whose divine birth the greatness of your power begot. We proclaim him as always Son, begotten before the eternal times, though the name of eternal father was not lacking in its fullness and perfection for you. We also confess him to be true equal to you with the Holy Spirit by honor of majesty and power, while with triune language we believe in a single majesty. Whom the angels praise….
POST COMMUNIONEM. Laeti, domine, frequentamus salutis humanae principia, quia trina celebratio beatae conpetit mysterium trinitatis: per dominum nostrum. AFTER COMMUNION. Having rejoiced, Lord, let us attend the beginnings of human salvation, so that the thrice-blessed celebrated might seek out the mystery of the trinity: through our Lord.
Music Texts for Christmas ANT. Dominus dixit ad me Filius meus es tu ego hodie genui te. PSALM. Quare fremuerunt gentes. [AD REPET. Adstiterunt] ANTIPHON. The Lord said to me: You are my Son; today I have begotten you. PSALM. Why do the nations rage? [AT THE REPETITION. They have stood.]
RESP. GRAD. Tecum principium in die virtutis tuae in splendoribus sanctorum ex utero ante luciferum genui te. V. Dixit Dominus Domino meo sede ad dextris meis donec ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum. GRADUAL RESPONSE. With you is principality on the day of your power in the splendors of the holy ones from the womb before the morning star I begot you. V. The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right until I place your enemies as a footstool for your feet.
ALL. Dominus dixit ad me Filius meus es tu ego hodie genui te. ALLELUIA. The Lord said to me: You are my Son; today I have begotten you.
OFF. Laetentur caeli et exultet terra ante faciem Domini quoniam venit. V. I. Cantate Domino canticum novum cantate Domino omnis terra. Ante. V. II. Cantate Domino benedicite nomini ejus bene nuntiate de die in diem salutare ejus. OFFERTORY. Let the heavens rejoice and the earth exult before the face of the Lord because he is coming. 1 st VERSE. Sing to the Lord a new son; sing to the Lord all the earth. Before. 2 nd VERSE. Sing to the Lord; bless his name. Announce well his salvation from day unto day.
COM. In splendoribus sanctorum. PSALM. Dixi Dominus Domino meo. AD REPET. Tecum principium. COMMUNION. In the splendors of the holy ones. PSALM. I have said: the Lord to my Lord. AT THE REPETITION: With you [is] pincipality.
Rubrics: Ordo Romanus Primus The offertory finished, the bishops are standing behind the pope, the senior in the middle, then in order; and the archdeacon on the right of the bishops, the second deacon on the left, and the others in order arranged in a line. And the district subdeacons go behind the altar when the offertory is finished, and look at the pope, so that, when he says For ever and ever or The Lord be with you or Lift up your hearts or Let us give thanks, they may be ready to answer, standing upright until they begin to say the angelic hymn, that is Holy, holy, holy.
And when they have finished, the pope alone rises for the canon, but the bishops, priests, deacons, and subdeacons remain bowed. And when he has said To us sinners also, the subdeacons rise; when he has said Through whom all these things, O Lord, the archdeacon rises alone; when he has said Through him and with him (the archdeacon) lifts up the chalice by the handles with the offertory- veil and holds it, raising it towards the pope. The pope touches the side of the chalice with the offerings, saying Through him and with him up to For all the ages of ages, and puts the offerings in their place, and the archdeacon puts the chalice near them.
We have left something out about the paten: when (the pope) begins the canon, an acolyte comes to his side with a linen cloth tied around his neck and holds the paten before his breast on the right side until the middle of the canon. Then the subdeacon in attendance receives it outside his chasuble and comes before the altar, and waits for a district subdeacon to receive it….