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The Date of Isaiah 56-66 Jerusalem destroyed 58:12; 64:10-11 The exiles will return 56:8; 60:4 Temple has been restored and is functioning –56:5 in my.

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Presentation on theme: "The Date of Isaiah 56-66 Jerusalem destroyed 58:12; 64:10-11 The exiles will return 56:8; 60:4 Temple has been restored and is functioning –56:5 in my."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Date of Isaiah 56-66 Jerusalem destroyed 58:12; 64:10-11 The exiles will return 56:8; 60:4 Temple has been restored and is functioning –56:5 in my house a monument and a name ~vw diy 56:1, 6-9 Proper 15 A –56:7 a house of prayer for all peoples –66:6 Listen, a voice from the temple A sharply divided community

2 “Servants” in Third Isaiah I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah inheritors of my mountains; my chosen shall inherit it [Judah], and my servants shall dwell there 65:9 Cf. 56:6; 63:17; 65:8, 9, 13, 14, 15; 66:14 No weapon fashioned against you shall prosper…This is the heritage of the servants of Yahweh 54:17

3 Salvation Judgment Oracle My servants shall eat, but you shall be hungry My servants shall drink, but you shall be thirsty My servants shall rejoice, but you shall be put to shame My servants shall sing for gladness, but you shall cry out for pain of heart 65:13-15 You = syncretists (65:1-7, 11-12) 65:1-9 Proper 7 C

4 Social Reality of Third Isaiah A community in which the poor are exploited by the wealthy Syncretised religion, including mortuary rites and cults, with a strong sexual orientation, is still being practiced, and practitioners include the temple priesthood (57:3-13; 65:1-12; 66:17) A community under severe stress—hostility between a prophetic group and the religious authorities. This prophetic group was excluded from the cultic community and marginalized socially and economically.

5 Social justice vs. ritual practice The fast that I choose 58:6-9 –To loose the bonds of injustice –To let the oppressed go free –To share your bread with the hungry –To bring the homeless into your house –To cover the naked Then you shall call and Yahweh will answer Such “fasting” requires greater self denial 1-9a (9b-12) Epiphany 5 A; 1-12 (Alt) Ash Wednesday ABC; 9b-14 Proper 16 C

6 Themes in Third Isaiah Missionaries to foreign lands 66:18-19—all nations will come and see my glory Ethnic and physical qualifications for membership are set aside (foreigners and eunuchs welcomed [per contra Deut 23:1-8]), but Sabbath observance central. Temple a house of prayer for all peoples (56:1-7; per contra Deut 23:2-9) God will create a new community, beginning with his “servants”—my chosen ones will inherit the land (65:9- 10)

7 More themes in Third Isaiah Round-the-clock intercessory prayer 62:6-7; prayer is gaining in popularity at the expense of sacrifice Redemption is conditional on moral regeneration 56:1 Maintain justice…for soon my salvation will come Self-indulgent conduct of the community leaders (56:9- 12) and those who have settled for the syncretistic option (57:3-13) Judgment by fire (66:15-16); lurid fate of the reprobate (66:24); new heavens and earth (65:17; 66:22); divine intervention: soon my salvation will come (56:1); reversal of fortunes and roles (65:13-15)

8 57:3-13 Vs. Syncretism Vs. the children of the sorceress and of a male adulterer: seeking consolation with shades of the dead, sacrificing children (3-5) Vs. the sorceress herself. Deviant cults//female sexual transgression. Religious consequences of exogamous marriages (6-13a) The one who takes refuge in me will inherit the land (13b)

9 Syncretism 57:1-13; 65:1-12; 66:17 You burn with lust among the oaks 57:5 You have set up your bed…you have uncovered your bed…you have made up a bargain for yourself with them, you have loved their bed 57:7-8 Journeyed to Molech = child sacrifice…sent envoys to Sheol v. 9 Sacrificing in gardens and offering incense on bricks 65:3 Eating the flesh of pigs, vermin, and rodents 66:17 (real sin or hyperbole?)

10 Isaiah 65-66 and Isaiah 1 God spreads out his hands to a rebellious people 65:2, 24 Creation of new heavens and earth 65:17 I will answer 65:24 Offspring blessed by Yahweh 65:23 Critique of animal and grain sacrifices 66:3 On new moon and sabbath all flesh will worship me 66:23 Inextinguishable fire 66:24 Garden cults 66:17--they sanctify and purify themselves to go into the garden Children I have reared, but they have rebelled 1:2, 28 Heaven and earth listen to Yahweh’s lawsuit 1:2 I will not listen 1:15 Offspring who deal corruptly 1:4 Offerings, incense, new moon, and sabbath rejected 1:13 Inextinguishable fire 1:31 Garden cults 1:29—you shall blush for the gardens you have chosen

11 Isaiah 60:1-6 Epiphany ABC Your light (God’s epiphany) has come, Zion (v 1) Yahweh’s glory shines like the dawn, but darkness covers the earth (v 2; 40:5 the glory of Yahweh will be revealed) Nations shall come to your light; kings to your dawn (v 3) Your sons shall come from afar; your daughters on their nurses’ arms (v 4) The abundance of the sea, and the wealth of nations shall come to you by sea (v 5); Countless camels from the east (v 6) Tribute for sacrifice on Yahweh’s altar (v 7) OT // to the wise men

12 Isaiah 61:1-4, 8-11 Advent 3 B 61:10-62:3 Christmas 1 B Yahweh has anointed me (the prophet or the servant) to preach good news to the oppressed, to comfort all who mourn (cf. Luke 4:18-19) To provide for those who mourn in Zion a garland instead of ashes They shall repair the ruined cities I, Yahweh, love justice and hate wrongdoing I (the prophet or the servant) will greatly rejoice in Yahweh for he has clothed me with victory (salvation) garments

13 Isaiah 62:1-5 Epiphany 2 C 61:10-62:3 Christmas 1 B I will not be silent until Zion is vindicated v 1 You will be a splendid crown in Yahweh’s hand v 3 Jerusalem no more called Azubah (forsaken; “Yahweh has forsaken me” 49:14; 1 Kgs 22:42) or Shemamah (desolate), but Hephzibah (my delight is in her; 2 Kgs 21:1) and Beulah (married) v 4. 65:15 his servants will be called by a different name Your builder %nEåAB /sons %yIn"+B' will “marry” [possess, master] you; God will rejoice over you v 5

14 Isaiah 62:6-12 Christmas Day 2 ABC Sentinels are to give God no rest until he establishes Jerusalem (vv 6-7) I will never give your grain and wine to your enemies; those who harvest grain will eat it (vv 8-9) Build up the highway (v 10) Say to daughter Zion: Your salvation comes (v 11) New names for the people: “Holy people” (v. 12; cf. holy seed in 6:13); “redeemed of Yahweh” (v. 12; cf. 35:8-9 a holy way for the redeemed); “sought out,” “a city not forsaken” hb'z")[/n< al{ï ry[iÞ

15 A Community Lament 63:7-19 (63:7-9 Christmas 1 A) Yahweh lifted and carried Israel in days of old (9) They rebelled and grieved his holy spirit (10) They recalled the days of old: Where is the one who brought them up from the sea? (11) Look down….Where is your zeal, your power, your compassion? (15) You are our father/redeemer even if Abraham and Israel would not acknowledge us (16) We have been as those who no longer bear your name (19)

16 Isaiah 64:1-9 Advent 1 B Oh that you (Yahweh) would tear open the heavens and come down as at Sinai, and make the nations tremble v (19b [1]) No God besides you who works for those who wait for him (v 3 [4]) We have sinned and you have hidden your face (cf. 45:15) and handed us over to iniquity (vv 5-6 [6-7]) Yet, you are our father; we are the clay and you the potter (v 7 [8])— relationship to God based on his creative acts prior to the saving history. Do not remember our iniquity forever; we are all your people (v 8 [9]) [Jerusalem a place of desolation (v 9 [10]); Our temple has been burned by fire (v 10 [11]) After all this, will you restrain yourself, Yahweh? Will you keep silent and afflict us beyond measure (v 11 [12])]

17 Isaiah 65:17-25 Proper 28; Easter (Alt) Both C New heavens and new earth v 17 No more weeping v 18 People live 100+ years v 20 They will build houses and live in them v 21 Peace among animals v 25; cf. 11:6-9 Dust will be the serpent’s food. Serpents are the exception to ideal harmony v 25; Cf. Gen 3:14

18 Isaiah 66 Outline 1-4 vs. syncretistic cult 5-6 favor to those who tremble at Yahweh’s word; judgment to Yahweh’s enemies 7-14 an epilogue to Third Isaiah—population explosion and prosperity; wrath to enemies 15-16 These verses develop idea of Yahweh’s wrath from v. 14; original conclusion to 56-66? 17 Those slain = syncretists of vv. 3-4

19 Isaiah 66 (cont.) 18-21 broad, inclusive approach to membership in Jewish community. Conversion of Gentiles; some of them even become priests and Levites 20 Gentiles limited to providing sacrificial material 22-23 new heavens and earth; all flesh worships Yahweh 24 excipit to book; worshipers go out to witness corpses of the rebels.

20 Isaiah 66:1-9 Heaven is my throne…what is this house that you would build for me? 56:7 a house of prayer and sacrifices; 60:7 Yahweh’s glorious house I look to the humble…who trembles at my word (vv. 2, 5). Cf. those who trembled at the words of the God of Israel Ezr 9:4 (also 10:3) Great population increase in Jerusalem: Before she goes into labor she gives birth! God stands behind this population explosion: Shall I open the womb and not deliver?

21 Isaiah 66:10-14 Proper 9 C Rejoice with Jerusalem and be glad, all you who love her That you may nurse and be satisfied from her consoling breast, her glorious bosom Yahweh gives prosperity and wealth to her As a mother comforts her child, I will comfort you (cf. 40:1-2) The hand of Yahweh is with his servants; his indignation against his enemies

22 The Hand of Yahweh For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand (of judgment) is stretched out still (5:25; 9:12, 17, 21; 10:4) Yahweh will extend his hand a second time to recover the remnant that is left of his people 11:11; His hand will divide the Euphrates 11:15 The hand of Yahweh will rest on this mountain 25:10 Yahweh’s hand is exalted, but the nations don’t see it (26:11) Yahweh’s hand with his servants 66:14

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