Presentation on theme: "Syntax Transformations LING 200 Spring 2003 Reading: File 6.6."— Presentation transcript:
Syntax Transformations LING 200 Spring 2003 Reading: File 6.6
More on movement Two kinds of syntactic rules –Phrase structure rules: generate basic structures –Transformational rules: permute or ‘move’ structures generated by phrase structure rules in limited ways prevent PS rules from becoming overly complicated can account for syntactic discontinuity
Model of syntax P-S rules generate:‘deep’ syntactic structure transformational rules: ‘surface’ syntactic structure Not every sentence contains evidence of transformational rules!
Some transformational rules of English Subject – Aux inversion Dative shift Particle movement
Subject – Aux inversion NP [The student who slept through the last lecture] Aux [should be] VP [studying]. Subject – Aux inversion: S [NP Aux [X Y] S [X NP Aux [Y Should the student who slept through the last lecture be studying?
Dative shift The TA gave a prize to the best student. The TA gave the best student a prize. The student left the homework assignment for their TA. The student left their TA the homework assignment. I’ll find the right size for you. I’ll find you the right size.
Two possible accounts of dative shift 1. Modify the PS rules: VP V NP NP But: *The student V [put] NP [the assignment] NP [the TA’s box]. 2. Modify the output of the PS rules. The Dative Shift transformation: V NP 1 P-NP 2 V NP 2 NP 1 : V NP 1 P-NP 2 V NP 2 NP 1 :
Dative shift PS rules: VP V NP PP PS rules: VP V NP PP The TA VP [ V [gave] NP [a prize] PP [ P [to]] NP [the best student]]]. V NP 1 P-NP 2 V NP 2 NP 1 Dative shift: V NP 1 P-NP 2 V NP 2 NP 1 The TA V [gave] NP [a prize] PP [to the best student]. Output: The TA VP [ V [gave] NP [the best student] NP [a prize]].
Restrictions on Dative shift Dative shift transformation lexically restricted to: –bring...to, give...to, show...to, read...to,... –do...for, find...for, make...for, save...for,... –ask (a question) of Not every V NP PP: - The magician touched the girl with the wand. - *The magician touched the wand the girl. Not every V NP PP [to NP] - Paul Allen donated a million dollars to the university. - *Paul Allen donated the university a million dollars. Not every V [give] NP PP - They gave themselves up to the police. - *They gave the police themselves (up).
Verb - particle movement Two types of V P NP in English 1.V PP: VP [V PP [P NP]] V [look] PP [at the solution] V [rely] PP [on the help] V [wait] PP [for the next best thing] V [defer] PP [to a higher authority] V [run] PP [up the hill]
Phrasal verbs 2. Phrasal verb: VP [ V [V P] NP] V V (P) (P = preposition, “particle”) V [ V [put] P [on]] NP [a coat] V [ V [put] P [off]] NP [the decision] V [ V [give] P [out]] NP [the exam] V [ V [call] P [up]] NP [the dean] V [ V [get] P [out]] NP [a pencil] V [ V [stand] P [up]] NP [a date] V [ V [run] P [up]] NP [the bill]
Differences between V PP, phrasal verbs 1. Position of pronominalized NP: V PPphrasal verb noun objectrun up the hillrun up the bill pronoun objectrun up itrun it up
Phrasal verbs and ‘particle movement’ Optional with full NP: put on a coat, put a coat on Obligatory with pronoun: *put on it, put it on run up a bill, run it up put off the decision, put it off give out the exam, give it out call up the dean, call him up
V PP vs. phrasal verbs 2. Entire PP can be moved to the beginning of the sentence (‘preposed’): V PPphrasal verb They said it was okay to run up the hill, and PP [up the hill] we ran. They said it was okay to [run up] V [the bill] NP, *and up the bill we ran. They said it was okay to run up the bill, and NP [quite a bill] we ran up.
3. Sentence fragment test: Only a constituent can substitute for a sentence. V PP vs. phrasal verbs V PPphrasal verb Did you V [run] PP [up the hill]? No, PP [up the stairs] No, NP [the stairs] Did you V [run up] NP [the (food) bill]? *No, up the bar tab No, NP [the bar tab]
V PP vs. phrasal verbs 4. Separability of V, P V PPphrasal verb Stephen V [ran] stealthily PP [up a big hill]. Stephen stealthily V [ran] PP [up a big hill]. *Stephen ran stealthily up a big bill. Stephen stealthily V [ran up] NP [a big bill].
V PP vs. phrasal verbs 5. Possibility of coordinating PP V PPphrasal verb You have to V [run] PP [up that hill] and then PP [up an even bigger one]. You have to V [run] PP [up NP [that hill] and then NP [an even bigger one]]. *We were told not to run up the food bill or up the bar tab. We were told not to V [run up] NP [the food bill] or NP [the bar tab].
Summary and analysis The linear string V P NP has two possible analyses: 1.V [P NP] V + PP 2.[V P] NP phrasal verb
V [P NP][V P] NP PP preposingyesno PP fragmentyesno V, P separabilityyesno PP coordinationyesno
Position of nominal vs. pronominal objects V [P NP][V P] NP NP objectran up the hillran up the bill *ran the hill upran the bill up pronoun objectran up it*ran up it *ran it upran it up
Position of pronominalized NP Particle Movement (transformation) VerbP] V NP 123 132 (optional unless NP is pronoun (then obligatory))
Transformational vs. PS approach to Particle Movement Purely phrase structure approach VP V (P) (NP) (run up the bill) VP V (NP) (P) (run the bill up)
Drawbacks of purely PS approach doesn’t represent phrasal verbs as syntactic or lexical unit no savings in # rules needed (1 PS rule + 1 transformation) additional rule would be needed (VP V P PP) for phrasal verb + PP: [ V [put] P [up]] PP [with the situation] [ V [let] P [up]] PP [on the pedal]
[V P] PP Preposing: on the pedal we let up Sentence fragment: did you let up on the pedal? No, (on) the brake. Separability: let up carefully on the pedal. Coordination: let up on the clutch and (on) the accelerator (No Particle movement: let up on it, *let on it up)
Summary Sentences are not just unstructured strings of words Two kinds of syntactic rules –Phrase structure rules –Transformational rules: Some transformational rules of English –Subject – Aux inversion –Dative shift –Particle movement