Presentation on theme: "Field Operations and Medical Command Communications But first….. Radio 101….."— Presentation transcript:
Field Operations and Medical Command Communications But first….. Radio 101…..
Types of Radios Base Radio –High power –Uses elevated antenna / tower Mobile Radio –Intermediate power –Uses roof mounted antenna –May use in doors on AC power (e.g., ED) Handheld Radio –Low Power –Integrated antenna –May use external antenna extension Scanner
Options in Public Safety Radio Systems Radio Spectrum –VHF, UHF, 700/800 MHz Analog vs. Digital Conventional vs. Trunked –Simplex – Duplex - Trunked
Radio Spectrum 150 MHz +/-450 MHz +/ MHz 4.9 GHz New Public Safety Broadband
Analog vs. Digital Networks Analog –Translate an audio signal into radio frequency signals –Can also carry data by converting it to an analog signal via a modem Digital –Translate an audio signal into a digital bit stream of ones and zeros using “vocoder” –Stream is sent over the airwaves and decoded at the receiving end –Receiving radio translates the digital stream into an audio signal equivalent to the original voice message
Analog vs. Digital Analog Signal Clear Signal Signal begins to degrade Signal unreadable with lots of static Digital Signal Clear Signal Computer cuts signal off when it becomes unreadable
Simplex Radio Systems Transmits & receives on single frequency “Talk Around” Like family walkie- talkies Radio A Tx: Rx: Radio B Tx: Rx: Radios C and D Tx: Rx:
Simplex Radio and Base Stations Port. Radio A Tx: Rx: Base Radio B receives signal from Port. Radio A Base Radio B Tx: Rx: Port. Radio C Tx: Rx: Port. Radio B too far away to receive signal from Port. Radio B
Simplex Radio and Base Stations Port. Radio A Tx: Rx: Base Radio B Tx: Rx: Port. Radio C Tx: Rx: Base Radio A transmits with strong signal that is received by both portable radios.
Simplex Radio with Private Line (AKA Tone Squelch) Hospital A Tx: Tone A Rx: Tone A Hospital B Tx: Tone B Rx: Tone B Ambulance C Tx: Tone A or B Rx: Tone A or B Only radios with Tone A (or no tone squelch) will hear transmission from ambulance.
Duplex Radio System with Repeater Port. Radio A Tx: Rx: Base Radio B receives signal from Port. Radio A on Base Radio B Tx: Rx: Port. Radio B Tx: Rx: Repeater Base Radio B automatically repeats received signal on with very strong signal received over wide area
Conventional Radio System EMS Fire Police One frequency = one user group
Trunked Radio System “A pool of radio channels available to any user when required. Channels are removed from the pool when needed and returned to the pool when not in use” Defined
Trunked Radio System UHF Bands (450, 700, 800, 900 MHz) Radio frequencies shared among all users Computer Controls Radios and Base Stations Each Radio Has Unique Address Each radio affiliates with single tower “Talkgroups” replace frequencies APCO Project 25
Trunked Call Processing 1. Call Request Push to Talk (PTT) Voice Channels Control Channel System Controller
Trunked Call Processing 2. Call Set-Up Voice Channels Control Channel System Controller “Assigns Channel 2”
Trunked Call Processing 3. Transmission Voice Channels Control Channel System Controller Receive Transmit
Trunked Radio Network Radio set on EMS Talkgroup Radio set on Police Talkgroup
Trunked Radio Network Radio set on EMS Talkgroup Radio set on Police Talkgroup
Trunked Radio Systems Pros and Cons Disadvantages Technically complex Requires new equipment Relatively expensive Fireground limitations Advantages Efficient spectrum use System redundancy Interagency communications Supports future growth Statewide / regional coverage possible
EMS Operations / MEDCOM Communications 0 Min5 Min10 Min15 Min20 Min Dispatch Communications Field Ops Communications MEDCOM Communications
EMS Field Operations Communications Purpose –Provide mission critical communications between all responders and dispatch Interagency Communications Between –1 st Responders – BLS – ALS – other Public Safety Applications –Downgrade, upgrade, or cancel response –Scene safety / vehicle placement –Provide update on patient status –Determine status of hospitals
EMS Field Operations Communications Communication modes –Radio –Cellular –Mobile data terminals Challenges with multiple agencies –Use of multiple frequencies / bands –Proprietary frequencies Unwilling to allow other agencies on their frequencies
MEDCOM Communications Field to Hospital (MEDCOM Center) –Provide pre-arrival notification to hospital –Receive direct medical control Pre-Arrival Notification –Enough info to find an ED bed Direct Medical Control –Authorize certain medical treatments –Physician consultation –Physician “heads up” notification
MEDCOM Communications Modes –Radio –Cellular –Web-based notifications System should be highly reliable –Offer redundant capabilities Need for recording –Maybe required –Essential component of retrospective CQI
Communications and CQI EMS communications systems provides excellent means to monitor system performance in real time and retrospectively Dispatch and Field Operations –Monitor response times / overall system function –Provides source for on-scene, concurrent CQI MEDCOM –Monitor clinical performance –Provides source for case reviews
Recording Communications Multi-channel digital recorder –Allows for electronic file transfers Confidentiality of communications –May be subject to FOIA –MEDCOM should be considered confidential Use in CQI –Random selection –Sentinel events –Selected cases
Radios and the Medical Director Should Medical Directors have Radios? Why? –Monitor system operations –Field response Allows for “cherry picking” –MCI Response What type of radio(s)? –Portable vs. mobile vs. scanner –May need permission from agency / state How do you acquire the equipment?
Primary Rule for the Medical Director and Radios Listen instead of talk!!!
Disaster and Interoperable Communications
Disaster Communications Ineffective communications most constant disaster response deficiency Interagency Communications –Between field responders Between EMS agencies / Between disciplines Essential for effective ICS –Between field and hospitals May use Regional Medical Coordination Center –Between field and Emergency Operations Center –Between local and state officials
Landline and Cellular Phones Cellular phones not reliable in disaster Landline systems may be overwhelmed GETS / WPS –Priority systems for wired and wireless phones
The GETS Calling Card GETS USER GETS USER ORGANIZATION GETS priority is invoked “call-by-call” Calling cards are in widespread use and easily understood by the NS/EP User, simplifying GETS usage GETS is a "ubiquitous" service in the Public Switched Telephone Network…if you can get a DIAL TONE, you can make a GETS call US GOVERNMENT PROPERTY. If found, return to: NCS (N3), P.O. Box 4502, Arlington VA WARNING: For Official Use Only by Authorized Personnel.
Web-Based Resource Tracking and Alerting Systems Used during non-disasters to monitor hospital status Connect all key resources –EMS – Hospitals – EOCs Provides Real Time –Casualty care capacity –Bed availability Alert hospitals and others of MCIs
Web-Based Resource Tracking and Alerting System
Health Alert Networks (HAN) CDC Bioterrorism Cooperative Agreements Goal: Provide a high-speed network to rapidly alert public health and emergency responders Currently in all 50 states –Coordinated by each state Alerting options – / Pager –Phone –Alerting by jurisdictions and by roles –Variable alerting based on event priority
Amateur Radio in Disasters Amateur Radio (HAM) Support in Disasters –Highly knowledgeable volunteer operators –Extensive amateur radio network / infrastructure –Provides redundant emergency communications Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) –Sponsored by Local / State Government –Volunteer operators certified, regularly train / exercise Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) –Non-government sponsored amateur radio operators –Organized in clubs –Often affiliated with RACES
911 References Federal Communications Commission 911 –E-911: –VoIP: National Emergency Number Association –http://nena9-1-1.org/http://nena9-1-1.org/ Assoc. of Public Safety Comm. Officials –http://www.apcointl.org/http://www.apcointl.org/
EMD References NHTSA EMD Program –http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ems/Reorder% 20files%20for%20CDRom1.htmhttp://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ems/Reorder% 20files%20for%20CDRom1.htm National Academy of Emergency Dispatch –http://www.emergencydispatch.org/http://www.emergencydispatch.org/ APCO Institute –http://www.apcointl.com/institute/http://www.apcointl.com/institute/ PowerPhone –http://www.powerphone.comhttp://www.powerphone.com New Jersey EMD Guidecards –http://www.state.nj.us/health/ems/guidecard.htmhttp://www.state.nj.us/health/ems/guidecard.htm
Disaster and Radio References Government Emergency Telecommunications System (GETS) –http://gets.ncs.gov/http://gets.ncs.gov/ CDC – Health Alert Network –http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/HAN/Index.asphttp://www.phppo.cdc.gov/HAN/Index.asp Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services –http://www.races.net/http://www.races.net/ Free radio frequency / system information –http://www.radioreference.com/http://www.radioreference.com/