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Game-based learning framework

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Presentation on theme: "Game-based learning framework"— Presentation transcript:

1 Game-based learning framework
Click on a topic to learn more Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

2 Learning objectives Learning Instruction Assessment
Learning objectives state what an educator wants the learner to learn. Five categories of learning in and around games: 1. Things we can learn in the game, as deliberately designed by game’s creators. 2. Things we must learn in a game (to successfully finish the game); a subset of the first category. 3. Collateral learning; other things we can learn—these are not necessarily designed into the game. 4. Things we actually did learn. 5. Cheats; deliberate design elements on the part of the designers, but not really considered part of the normal gameplay. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

3 Clear player goals Goals in the game do not necessarily equate to the learning objectives and are therefore mentioned separately. Win-criteria for a game do not necessarily equate with the things players are supposed to learn through playing the game. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

4 Learning content Successful pairing of instructional content with appropriate game features results in recurring and self-motivated gameplay. This continual process eventually leads to specific learning outcomes, often reinforced by debriefing and a blended approach. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

5 Context Learning Instruction Assessment GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS:
Fantasy The make-believe aspects of the game; environment, scenarios (narrative), the role(s) of the player, nonplayer characters (game agents) that can be interacted with. “Exogenous fantasy is a direct overlay on learning content. It is dependent upon the skill, but the skill does not depend on the fantasy. Endogenous fantasy is related to learning content. It is an essential relationship between the learned skill and the fantasy context (engaging and educational).” (Habgood et al., 2005) Goals/Objectives Goals and objectives describe the game’s win conditions. In this capacity they provide motivation for actions within the game. The game’s objectives can either be absolute (unchanging) or subject to change, depending on specific circumstances, scenarios, and player actions. Language/ Communication Specific lingual or communication rules of the game. Mystery The gap between available information and unknown information. Mystery provides puzzlement and complexity, triggers curiosity, and is enhanced by surprise and unpredictability (random elements). Pieces or Players The game pieces (objects) or people that are included in the game scenario. This includes game items, player characters (avatars), and real-life human participants. Player Composition The organization of players in a game; individual, as a team, multiple individuals (multiplayer), or multiple teams. Rules Rules constitute the inner, formal structure of games. Rules impose limits on player action. The rules also set up potential actions, actions that are meaningful inside the game, but meaningless outside. Rules specify limitations and affordances. Rules establish criteria for how to win. Theme The setting or context of the game. A game is a thematically driven experience. Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

6 Learner Specifics Learning Instruction Assessment GAME ELEMENTS:
Challenge The amount of difficulty and probability of obtaining goals a player has within the game. A challenging game possesses multiple clearly specified goals, progressive difficulty, and informational ambiguity. Challenge adds fun and competition by creating barriers between current state and goal state. Combined with feedback, it provides a systematic balance of difficulty that changes as the learner progresses. Conflict Solvable problems that the player is confronted with within the game and that usually drive the game’s plot or in-game action by providing interaction. Conflict can be provided by the game itself (e.g., puzzles), by autonomous game agents (e.g., enemies), and by other players. Progress The measure of how the player progresses in achieving the goals (win conditions) of the game. User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

7 Representation Learning Instruction Assessment GAME ELEMENTS:
Action-Domain Link The story of the game consists of situations where the learner needs to apply the knowledge he gains from playing the game. This includes a close enough link to reality so that learners easily see how to apply knowledge to the real world. Control The player’s possibilities for active and direct manipulation of specific aspects of the game. In order to exert control, the learner needs to be active in making decisions in the story. Abundant learner control gives the player a sense of unrestricted options. Interaction (Equipment) “The adaptability and manipulability of a game. The game changes in response to player’s actions.” (Wilson et al., 2009) Interaction (Interpersonal) “Face-to-face interaction, relationships between players in real space and time. It provides an opportunity for achievements to be acknowledged by others, and challenges become meaningful, which induces involvement.” (Wilson et al., 2009) Interaction (Social) “Interpersonal activity that is mediated by technology, which encourages entertaining communal gatherings by producing a sense of belonging.” (Wilson et al., 2009) Location The physical or virtual environment in which the game takes place; thus linked to ‘fantasy’. Location influences rules and solution parameters. Problem-Learner Link The way in which the game’s location, theme and story relate to the learner’s interests. It makes the game relevant to the player. Representation The player’s perception of the game’s reality, as the game allows. A more narrow scope of representation provides a player with focus; a broader scope of representation provides a player with distractions. Sensory Stimuli The game’s presentation stimulates players’ senses and tap into the players’ emotions, allowing for a (temporary) acceptance of the game’s reality (fantasy, location, theme) by the player. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

8 Pedagogy Learning Instruction Assessment GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS:
Adaptation The level of difficulty of the game gradually increases, or adjusts to the skill level of the player. Assessment/Feedback The measurement of achievement within the game (e.g., scoring). The game gives the learner feedback on the outcomes of his actions. This provides users with opportunities to learn from previous actions. Scoring also compares performance among competing players. Debriefing/Evaluation To utilize opportunities for learning, an evaluative session (the debriefing) is held after the game. In the evaluation, the players and the facilitator/teacher talk about the experiences and outcomes of the game. The individual player can be evaluated, the players can be evaluated as a team, or they can be evaluated both as a team and as individual players. Instructions/Help/Hints Helpful comments, tutorials, and other hints the game provides in order to get a player started quickly, to get him/her out of a difficult situation, or to get him/her quickly acquainted with newly introduced aspects of a game. Safety The lack of real-world consequences that actions within the game have; the only consequence is a possible loss of dignity when losing. This provides players with a safe way to experience the reality, as presented in the game. It allows for risk-taking and experimentation, thus providing players with more learning opportunities. User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

9 User learning Attention needs to be paid to the game learning cycle, which consists of user behavior, user feedback, user engagement, and user learning. The instructional design needs to be such that user actions are given sufficient feedback to trigger engagement, leading to learning. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

10 User behavior Learning Instruction Assessment
Attention needs to be paid to the game learning cycle, which consists of user behavior, user feedback, user engagement, and user learning. The instructional design needs to be such that user actions are given sufficient feedback to trigger engagement, leading to learning. An example of user behavior would be time on task. The amount of time a user spends engaged in a particular task. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

11 Player feedback The measurement of achievement, progress, and score of the player within a game. The game gives the learner feedback on the outcomes of his actions (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004; Juul, 2005; Wilson et al., 2009). The reflective observation of feedback leads to the construction of schemata and enables the player to discover new and better solutions to his problems Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

12 User engagement Games are designed to generate a positive affect in players and are most successful and engaging, thus intrinsically motivating, when they facilitate the flow experience (Gee, 2003; Salen & Zimmerman, 2004; Kiili, 2005; Schell, 2008). Flow describes a state of complete absorption or engagement in an activity and refers to the optimal experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; 1990). During optimal experience, a person is in a psychological state where he or she is so involved with the goal-driven activity that nothing else seems to matter. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Difficulty F L O W Boredom Anxiety Player Ability Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

13 Debriefing To utilize opportunities for learning, an evaluative session (the debriefing) is held after the game. In the evaluation, the players and the facilitator/teacher talk about the experiences and outcomes of the game. The individual player can be evaluated, the players can be evaluated as a team, or they can be evaluated both as a team and as individual players. Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

14 System feedback Learning Instruction Assessment
The measurement of achievement, progress, and score of the player within a game. The game gives the learner feedback on the outcomes of his actions (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004; Juul, 2005; Wilson et al., 2009). The reflective observation of feedback leads to the construction of schemata and enables the player to discover new and better solutions to his problems Learning Instruction Assessment User behavior Player feedback User learning User engagement Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Representation GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Debriefing Learning content System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.


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