3Topic: Universal Design OUTLINETopic: Universal DesignIntroduction: The definition of universal desing will be given.Subtitles : There are seven universal design principles and these principles will be explained.1-Equitable Use2-Flexibility in Use3-Simple and intuitive Use4-Perceptible Information5-Tolerance for Errors6-Low Physical Errors7-Size and Space for Approach and UseConclusion: Some universal design principles in Turkey will be shown.
4Universal design was defined by the Center for Universal Design (1997) as “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design” .
5Objectives and General Principles of Universal Design The purpose of this slides is to explore the seven principles of universal design and to consider its application to large scale assessments and where do we need to consider universal design.Here, the seven principles of universal design approach.
61. Equitable UseThe design should be available for individuals with diverse abilities.Guidelines:Provide the same means of use for all users.Avoid segregating or stigmating any users.Make the design appealing to all users.Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should beequally available to all users.
92. Flexibility in UseThe design should supply wide range of individuals preferences and abilities.Guidelines:Provide choice in methods of useAccommodate right or left handed access and useFacilitate the user’s accuracy and precisionProvide adaptability to the user’s pace.
113. Simple and Intuitive Use Use of the design should easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.Guidelines:Eliminate unnecessary complexity.Be consistent with user expectations and intuition.Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills.Arrange information consistent with its importance.Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.
134.Perceptible Information The design should transfer necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilitiesGuidelines:Use different modes (pictorial,verbal,tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information.Provide adaquate contrast between essential information and its surroundings.Maximize ‘’legibility’’ of essential imformation.Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directionsProvide compatibility with a varietyy of techniques or deviced used by people with sesory limitations.
155. Tolerance for Error Guidelines: The design should minimize the misareble results of accidental or unintended actions.Guidelines:Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible;hazardous elements eliminatedProvide warnings of hazards and errors.Provide fail safe fatures.Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.
176.Low Physical Effort Guidelines: The design should be used efficiently and comfortably with a minimum of fatigue.Guidelines:Allow user to maintain a neutral body position.Use reasonable operating forces.Minimize repetitive actions.Minimize sustained physical effort.
197. Size and Space for Approach and Use The design shoud be suitable in terms of size and space in order to easy approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility .Guidelines:Provide a clear line of sight to importants elements for any seated or standing user.Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user.Accomodate variations in hand and grip size.Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.
21CONCLUSION:Bettye, Mike, Ron (1997) states that “Please note that the Principles of Universal Design address only universally usable design, while the practice of design involves more than consideration for usability. Designers must also incorporate other considerations such as economic, engineering, cultural, gender, and environmental concerns in their design processes. These Principles offer designers guidance to better integrate features that meet the needs of as many users as possible” (p.1).
22HOW UNIVERSAL DESIGN WORKS IN TURKEY? In 1991, although Turkish Standarts Instutute developed its old rules, the application of rules had to wait to enter in life. In 1997, to make buildings suitable for disable persons usage, the law of handicapped people was changed. After this date, in 2005, the turkish government had decided that the existing buildings rearrange for disabled people in seven years period. But there is no so much difference since 2005 in buildings for disabled people usage.For Turkey ,Universal Design philosophy can not be understood well and in practice it still in poor.
26REFERENCESBettye, R.C., Mike, J., Ron, M.,(1997). The principles of Universal Design. Version(2.0) Retrieved December 25, 2011, from Neslihan, D., Ece, Ş., Yavuz, T.,(2009). Evrensel Tasarım. Retrieved December 25, 2011, from Sandra, J.T., Cristopher, J.J., Martha, L.T.,(2002). Universal Design Applied to Large Scale Assessments. Published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved December 25, 2011, from