Presentation on theme: "Identity and Context Virtualization The Key to Your IdM Architecture."— Presentation transcript:
Identity and Context Virtualization The Key to Your IdM Architecture
“Everything You Know About IdM Is Wrong” Neil McDonald, Gartner IAM Summit
Gartner: Contextual Virtual Identity "By year-end 2009, 80 percent of organizations deploying IAM solutions will use virtual directory technology as part of the IAM infrastructure"
It’s About Virtualizing Both Identity and Context
“Virtual Directories: Valuable Present, Promising Future” Mark Diodati, Burton Group Market Leader “The Radiant Logic VDS product has been in the market for 8 years and is the leader in the virtual directory market”
Vision / Nirvana A Single Secure Identity Service –Seamless Authentication & Authorization –Single point to provision access –Internal & External Users Levels of Authentication based upon risk Easier access to user object data Customer Implementation
Identity Architecture Identity Management Service IdM Access Services Authentication User Object Data Access Authorization Provisioning Engine Virtual Directory Enterprise Directory MetaDirectory Authorization Manager Authoritative Sources Network Operating System Active Directory FRB Groupware/ Network Operating System Active Directory Board Mainframe HR Human Capital Management System Identity Provisioning Virtualization Layer
Our Customers are our Best Testimonials
Identity and Context Virtualization One Infrastructure: Many Services VDS Different Virtual Directory views for different services A common identity The Virtual Identity Hub ICS
Top 4 Common Use Cases for Identity and Context Virtualization 1.Authentication (WAM, Portal, SM, TAM, RSA, Ping) a.Integrating identities: Internal vs. External, Employees/Customers…etc… b.The challenges and opportunities brought by Active Directory Multiple domains/forests 2.Authorization (Roles, Rules, SM, RSA,TAM, Policy Server) a.The challenges and opportunities brought by Active Directory b.Context are generally defined in applications that use databases 3.Delegated Administration a.segregation of duties b.specialized contextual views 4.Global/Enterprise Information Server for structured data (moving from a directory as a context server)
Use Case: Authentication (Identity Union) Challenges: 1.First step in authentication is identification (finding the user entry that needs to authenticate) Identities are spread across multiple data sources (e.g. multiple AD domains/forests…etc) Identities are described differently in each source (e.g. FirstName vs. fname vs. givenName) 2.Second step is credentials checking. Each source supports its own authentication mechanism Different encryption of passwords and schema elements (userPassword vs. unicodePwd…etc). Existing internal user IDs, passwords in Active Directory External users credentials may be stored elsewhere (SunOne, Oracle…etc) Virtualization solves the authentication problem Aggregating users from multiple data sources (allow applications to search one common namespace to find the user) Credentials checking can be handled at the virtual directory layer, or by the underlying source (delegated authentication)
Three Main Challenges Associated with the Identification (Search) Phase of the Authentication 1.Locating the user where to search for them If there is more than one place, the challenge becomes where to search and in which order 2.Having a common representation of the user info Schema conversion, objectclass and attributes mapping (e.g. InetorgPerson in Sun vs. User in AD, vs person table in database) 3.Distinguishing between the different identifiers for the same person…. LCallahan, LauraC…
Authentication Step 1: Identification Locate the user entry (based on who logs in) DatabasesDirectoriesApplications User information spread across multiple heterogeneous sources and stored differently
Example: Identification Challenges with Multiple Active Directory Forests/Domains o=vds ou=AD List ou=AD3 ou=AD2 ou=AD1 dc=us ou=internal cn=novato_branch Active Dir Domain 1 ou=salesou=temps dc=us.corp ou=groups Active Dir Domain 2 ou=Admin ou=Con dc=cis ou=dept Active Dir Domain 3 ou=sales ou=mktg VDS
Identification: Create an Aggregated List of User Entries Aggregation/linking establish a complete list of User Entries All schemas are mapped to a common schema All users can be found/identified in the virtual namespace
Aggregation vs. Integration: Union, Intersection (correlation where needed) Reduced sign on is possible only if an identity exists (and has been be detected/correlated) across different security domains
Authentication Step 2: Credentials Checking Authentication Mechanism Password encryptions DatabasesDirectoriesApplications Passwords encrypted using custom algorithm Passwords encrypted using SSHA Passwords encrypted using custom algorithm
Authentication Step 2: Credential Checking Multiple authentication mechanisms supported Delegated authentication – bind request will be sent to underlying directory for processing Custom scripting to leverage the appropriate encryption algorithm Client Authentication Request
Example: Proxy Authentication Back to the Right Active Directory Domain Controller in a Specific Forest Client Authentication Request AD unicodePwd sAMAccountName Authentication request forwarded to Active Directory VDS RE-USE existing users + credentials!
Use Case: Authorization (Join) Challenges: Profile information exists in multiple data sources Data sources have their own schema elements Attributes are different and stored differently Each source has its own schema (e.g. user – AD vs. inetOrgPerson – Sun vs. Employee table – Oracle) Attributes –memberOf (AD) –groupOfNames (eDirectory) –posixGroup (OpenLDAP) Inflexible schema extensions (AD) Virtualization solves the authorization problem Provides a common schema that all sources can map to Aggregates profile information which provides more context about a user Web access management products can base policy decisions on the information available in the VDS More attributes available = more fine-grained policies possible
Deployment Details: Schema Extensions USER OBJECT password memberOfdept EXTUSER OBJECT loginShell uidNumber home directory AD Client (e.g. TAM – requires schema extensions, integrating UNIX/AD – posix attributes…etc) Access AD attributes plus the required extended attributes
Build a Complete Profile Join – build a complete, unique profile from information in all data sources cn = Laura Callahan title=Sales Manager employeeID=8 FullName = Laura Callahan ProjectID=2019 UserID=8 First_Name = Laura Last_Name = Callahan Department = Sales EmployeeNo=8 FullName = Laura Callahan title=Sales Manager employeeID=8 ProjectID=2019 Department=Sales Client Can base authorization on complete profile
Customer Implementation Virtual Directory Role Central location for user authentication, roles, and authorization Virtualization of a single user identity across all systems Synchronization of real-time application user identity changes
Use Case: Delivering Data in Context Challenge: For Delegated Administration Existing hierarchies are relatively flat – making them easier to maintain and manage. However, this limits the usefulness of delegated administration –Delegated administration requires a hierarchy based on how you want to delegate How does a virtualization layer deliver data in context? Reconfigure existing directory trees to make more meaningful views for delegated administration Based on the data available in the entries, different hierarchies are possible (e.g. based on: Country -> State -> City, Management (org chart), Job Description…etc)
Virtual View Based on Location Country State City
Virtual View Based on Org Chart Top Manager Full Management Hierarchy
Virtual View Based on Role, Location and Territory Role Location Territory
Use Case: Global Directory and Enterprise search Problems: Mergers and Acquisitions result in numerous enterprise directories/databases that require integration/aggregation Active Directory HR Systems Customer databases Often times, applications that consume data can only connect to a single directory How does a virtualization layer help build a Global/Enterprise Directory? Aggregate multiple data sources into a common directory namespace No changes (to schema or data) required in the underlying directories Fast implementation and configuration Re-use existing data rather than rebuild a new directory where data is synchronized into.
Customer Implementation 7 Abstraction Layers
Aggregate Existing Data Sources Help Desk ERPHR Knowledge Management White PagesCRM Client “Talk” to a single directory dc=Global Directory
Data Sources with Common Users (with existing common key) With unique common key Joins based on common key cn = Laura Callahan title=Sales Manager employeeID=8 FullName = Laura Callahan ProjectID=2019 UserID=8 First_Name = Laura Last_Name = Callahan Department = Sales EmployeeNo=8 FullName = Laura Callahan title=Sales Manager employeeID=8 ProjectID=2019 Department=Sales
Data Sources with Common Users (NO Existing Common Key) Without unique common key Virtualization alone cannot detect duplicate users Requires Identity correlation and reconciliation Matching rules to determine common users across the sources HR Accounting CRM Global Identity Hub Reference/pointers Data SourcesMatching RulesGlobal Directory Entry
Customer Implementation Initial Problem COI’s did not have an ability to reach across the disparate agenciesand networks to find contact and profile information As in all cases where information needed to be accessed from varying sources–data ownership, security, and privacy were the largest hurdles.
Customer Implementation Approach Create a unified virtual directory where it was easy to get buyin from the disparate data owners. The primary‘selling points’were: – Capability : Users would be able to search for personal contact information across organizations and domains, previously unavailable. – Data Ownership : The solution allowed the owners of the disparate identity repositories to remain the autonomous authoritative source. Read only access rights were requested to identity repositories. – Data Virtualization : Data would not be synchronized, i.e. replicated or copied. Synchronization would be difficult to deploy and maintain. Further, a latency may exist introducing uncertainty surrounding currency of information.