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Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency Emil Björnson ‡*, Luca Sanguinetti ‡§, Jakob Hoydis †, and Mérouane Debbah ‡ ‡ Alcatel-Lucent Chair on Flexible Radio, Supélec, France * Dept. Signal Processing, KTH, and Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden § Dip. Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy † Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, Stuttgart, Germany WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)1 When is Massive MIMO the Answer? Best Paper Award

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Introduction: Multi-User MIMO System WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)2 K users, M antennas

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What if We Design for Energy Efficiency? WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)3 Some UE Distribution

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How to Measure Energy Efficiency? WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)4

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WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)5 System Model

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Average Sum Throughput WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)6 Cost of estimation Average over channels and user locations Signal-to-interference+noise ratio (SINR)

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Average Sum Throughput (2) WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)7 Maximize signal Minimize interference Balance signal and interference

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Detailed Power Consumption Model WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)8 Fixed power (control signals, load-independ. processing, backhaul infrastructure) Circuit power per transceiver chain Coding/decoding data streams Cost of channel estimation and precoding computation

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Problem Formulation WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)9 Simple expression ZF in analysis Other precoding in simulations

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WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)10 Overview of Analytic Results

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Analytic Results and Observations WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)11 Increases withDecreases with - Large Cell More antennas, users, power More Circuit Power Use more transmit power More Antennas Use more transmit power Reveals how variables are connected

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WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)12 Numerical Examples

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Simulation Scenario Main Characteristics -Circular cell with radius 250 m -Uniform user distribution with 35 m minimum distance -Uncorrelated Rayleigh fading, typical 3GPP pathloss model Realistic Modeling Parameters -See the paper for details! WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)13

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Optimal System Design: ZF Precoding WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)14

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Optimal System Design: MRT WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)15 Single-user transmission! Only exploit precoding gain

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Why This Huge Difference? WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)16 Only 2x difference in EE 100x difference in throughput

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Energy Efficient to Use More Power? WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)17 Almost linear growth

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WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)18 Conclusions

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What if a Single-Cell System Designed for High EE? Contributions -General power consumption model -Closed-form results for ZF: Optimal number of antennas Optimal number of UEs Optimal transmit power -Observations: More circuit power Use more transmit power Numerical Example -ZF/RZF precoding: Massive MIMO system is optimal -MRT precoding: Single-user transmission is optimal -Small difference in EE, huge difference in throughput! WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping)19

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WCNC 2014, Designing Multi-User MIMO for Energy Efficiency, E. Björnson (Supélec, KTH, Linköping) Thank You for Listening! Questions? More details and multi-cell results: E. Björnson, L. Sanguinetti, J. Hoydis, M. Debbah, “Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Multi-User MIMO Systems: Is Massive MIMO the Answer?,” Submitted to IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, Mar Matlab code available for download! Best Paper Award

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