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1 User Design of Customized Products Taylor Randall University of Utah Eccles School of Business Salt Lake City, UT Joint.

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Presentation on theme: "1 User Design of Customized Products Taylor Randall University of Utah Eccles School of Business Salt Lake City, UT Joint."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 User Design of Customized Products Taylor Randall University of Utah Eccles School of Business Salt Lake City, UT Taylor.Randall@business.utah.edu Joint work with Karl Ulrich and Christian Terwiesch of the Wharton School, in collaboration with Dell Computer Corporation.

2 2 Randall Examples Dell Eleuria Lands’ End Timbuk2 Customatix Cannondale

3 3 Randall

4 4 Artifact Set Design Variables Product delivery system Customization In “Mass Customization” design variables are usually constrained within a fixed product architecture.

5 5 Randall Design variables for a Dell consumer laptop computer: Model/package Display Video Processor Inspiron 8XXXSmartStepInspiron 2XXXInspiron 4XXXLatitude X200 15 super XGA+ 15 Ultra XGA 15 Ultra sharp XGA 15 XGA 15 super XGA+ 14.1 XGA 14.1 SXGA+ 14.1 Ultra XGA 14.1 XGA 12.1 XGA nVidia 16 nVidia 32 nVidia 64 AGP 32 Radeon 32nVidia 16 nVidia 32 Radeon 16 Radeon 32 P4 1.6 P4 1.7 P4 1.9 P4 2.0 P4 2.2 P4 1.6 P4 1.7 P4 1.9 Cel 1.2 Cel 1.33 P4 1.6 P4 1.7 P4 1.9 P4 2.0 P3 0.8 Memory Hard Drive Wireless NIC Etc.

6 6 Randall Artifact (final product and/or prototype) user experience Designer User Set Design Variables Understand needs Information Processing Challenges 1.What are true user needs? 2.What values of design variables will best meet understood needs?

7 7 Randall Artifact (final product and/or prototype) user experience User Set Design Variables The information challenges persist: 1.What are true user needs? 2.What values of design variables will best meet understood needs? And even worse, Users typically lack skill in addressing either challenge.

8 8 Randall Navigation task for a lap top designer

9 9 Randall Typical Defects in User Design Systems  Poor “fit” between resulting artifact and user needs  Frustration with design complexity  Lack of understanding of causal structure relating design variables to user needs  Yet, user design offers tantalizing prospects for Perceived responsiveness to heterogeneous customer needs Development of long-term customer relationships and brand loyalty Price discrimination because comparisons among product prices are difficult Satisfaction of human needs for uniqueness and self expression

10 10 Randall Needs-Based Design vs. Technology-Based Design example: User Design of Custom Cosmetics Moisturizing Hand and Body Lotion Ingredients: % Wt. Phase A Varisoft TA-100 (Goldschmidt) (distearyldimonium chloride)4.75 Crodacol C-70 (Croda) (cetyl alcohol)2.00 Penreco Snow White Petrolatum (Penreco) (petrolatum)4.00 DC Fluid 200, 1,000 cst (Dow Corning) (dimethicone)0.25 Phase B Deionized water q.s. Stepan IPM (Stepan) (isopropyl myristate) 3.25 Glycerin 4.00 Phase C Sensomer CI-50 (Ondeo Nalco) (starch hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride) 3.00 AA040513 Cucumber (Arylessence) (fragrance) 0.25 Preservative q.s. Sodium hydroxide q.s. to pH6 10. How many bottles of perfume and cologne do you currently have at home?: 10 or more 6-9 2-5 1 None Wouldn't be caught dead without makeup Won't leave home without makeup Don't wear makeup on weekends or on vacation Only wear makeup for special occasions Never wear makeup 9. On weekends, or while on vacation, how much time do you spend getting dressed, fixing your hair, and applying makeup?: 1 hour or more 45-60 minutes 30-45 minutes 15-30 minutes less than 15 minutes 7. Choose the selection that BEST describes WHEN you use cosmetics: 8. On a normal day, how much time do you spend getting dressed, fixing your hair, and applying makeup?: 1 hour or more 45-60 minutes 30-45 minutes 15-30 minutes less than 15 minutes Needs-Based Design VariablesTechnology-Based Design Variables Example from Eleuria.com

11 11 Randall Needs-Based Approach for Dell Laptop In simplest case, just a re- labeling of design variables. More typically, requires computation to find feasible designs. Addresses both information processing challenges. Raises issues of trust and credibility. How much do you carry your computer with you? It is always/nearly always with me. I carry it back and forth to work. I carry it only when travelling. I rarely carry it. How much do you expect to record and store music on your computer? I would like to store my entire music collection. I expect to store some music. I may store an occassional song. I don’t use digital music. How much video editing do you expect to do? Etc. How big and strong do you consider yourself to be? Etc. What kinds of computer games do you expect to play? Etc. How much did you spend on the last car you bought? Etc. When you choose a computer, do you spend more “just in case”? Etc.

12 12 Randall Random Assignment Tech-based System Establish User Profile Show Product Show Other Products Needs-based System Post treatment An Experiment: Dell Laptops Design Product Key Result: Novices performance is better in a needs based system. Experts performance is better in a tech-based system.

13 13 Randall Your Task: Design a Tech and Needs Interface for a Bicycle  Steps Identify Needs. Identify Specs. Map Needs to Specs. Create the web interface.

14 14 Randall Navigation task for a lap top designer

15 15 Randall Principle 1: Provide Experts with a Tech Based Interface

16 16 Randall Principle 1: Provide Novices with a Needs Based Interface (Look at Dell.com and Eleuria.com)

17 17 Randall Specify Your Needs and Preferences Specify Product Technology (OPTIONAL) You need not specify any product technology choices, but you may do so if desired. model Processor type and speed Display type and size Hard drive capacity and speed Network interface type Wireless network capability Expected portability needs Gaming applications Budget/Price sensitivity Networking environment Graphics applications Use of digital music Results These models and configurations provide the best fit with the needs and preferences you have specified. SmartStep Inspiron 8000 Series Inspiron 2000 Series Inspiron 4000 Series Latitude X200 Series 0 configurations match your needs 12 configurations match your needs 8 configurations match your needs 0 configurations match your needs view specs and prices Pentium 4 at 1.2 Ghz 15 inch SXGA+ SmartStep 40GB at 3400 rpm Integrated NIC card Integrated Dell Truemobile I don’t expect to use digital music (e.g. MP3) I expect to edit digital photographs I expect to use my computer where I will plug into a local network I prefer to pay the absolute minimum possible for a notebook computer. I don’t expect to play video games. I expect to carry my computer everywhere.

18 18 Randall User Needs Product Technology model Processor type and speed Display type and size Hard drive capacity and speed Network interface type Wireless network capability Expected portability needs Gaming applications Budget/Price sensitivity Networking environment Graphics applications Use of digital music Pentium 4 at 1.2 Ghz 15 inch SXGA+ SmartStep 40GB at 3400 rpm Integrated NIC card Integrated Dell Truemobile I don’t expect to use digital music (e.g. MP3) I expect to edit digital photographs I expect to use my computer where I will plug into a local network I prefer to pay the absolute minimum possible for a notebook computer. I don’t expect to play video games. I expect to carry my computer everywhere. What should I get? Try it out! Match Needed Actual ! !

19 19 Randall User Needs Recommended System model Processor type and speed Display type and size Hard drive capacity and speed Network interface type Wireless network capability Expected portability needs Gaming applications Budget/Price sensitivity Networking environment Graphics applications Use of digital music Pentium 4 at 1.2 Ghz 15 inch SXGA+ SmartStep 40GB at 3400 rpm Integrated NIC card Integrated Dell Truemobile I don’t expect to use digital music (e.g. MP3) I expect to edit digital photographs I expect to use my computer where I will plug into a local network I prefer to pay the absolute minimum possible for a notebook computer. I don’t expect to play video games. I expect to carry my computer everywhere. Estimated Performance of Recommended System adequate Save this configuration Specs for this Configuration Width 11.0 in Depth 9.0 in Thickness 2.2 in Weight 7.8 lb Display resolution 1280 x 1024 Office application benchmark 65/100 Gaming benchmark 45/100 Price $2,115 Click for Recommended System You may edit any of the recommended features directly below.

20 20 Randall Principle 2: Consider Different Starting Points (Go see Nike.com or Timbuk2.com)

21 21 Randall

22 22 Randall Principle 3: Support Incremental Refinement (What’s the next lightest or heaviest computer)

23 23 Randall Principle 4: Exploit Prototypes to Avoid Surprises (Dell milk jug, Eleuria samples, old jeans).

24 24 Randall Principle 5: Teach the Customer (See Dell.com)


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