4 Good Design (our goal!)“Every designer wants to build a high-quality interactive system that is admired by colleagues, celebrated by users, circulated widely, and imitated frequently.” (Shneiderman, 1992, p.7)…and anything goes!…
5 What is an interface?An interface refers to the part of technology that people interact withInteractions include information transfer:From user to computerFrom computer to user
7 What is a ‘well-designed’ interface? Depends on your perspective……Examples:For a programmer – works within technical constraints of projectFor a usability engineer – designed with particular user group in mindFor a user – works the way expected
8 Types of Interfaces Character-based user interface (CHUI) Graphical user interface (GUI)Web user interface (WUI)Speech user interfaces (SUI)Auditory user interface (AUI)Graphical user interface with speech (S/GUI)Voice user interface (VUI)
9 Speech User Interface A software interface that employs speech Human speechSimulated human speech
10 Auditory User Interfaces An Auditory user interface (AUI) is an interface which relies primarily or exclusively on audio for interaction, including speech and sound. (Weinschenk & Barker 2000)Examples:Hands-free automobile navigational systemInteractive voice response system (IVR) like automated payment centerProducts for visually impaired
11 Auditory User Interfaces Natural Language/Speech User InterfacesConversation is naturalMultimodal User InterfacesCombines voice, text, graphics, gestures, keypad, stylus, etc. into one interface
12 Graphical User Interface with Speech (S/GUI) Multimodal interface that involves speech and a GUIExamples:Voice activated calling on cell phoneDictation software that allows text entered via text, speech or both
13 Graphical User Interface with Non-Speech Audio Interface that includes non-verbal audioEarcons – auditory icons/sounds that communicate informationExamples:System beeps when user makes an errorSystem knocks when someone wants to chat
14 Multimodal User Interfaces Simultaneous MultimodalityMultiple modes at the same time, voice-visualSequential MultimodalityUses multiple modes sequentially and seamlessly
15 Voice User InterfaceA voice user interface (or VUI) is what a person interacts with when communicating with a spoken language application. (Cohen et al, 2004)
16 Why a VUI? Characteristics that favor VUI: Hands-busy situation No keyboard, mouse, stylus availableDisabliltiesContext-specific, command driven application
17 But What Makes a Good VUI? FunctionalitySpeed & efficiencyReliability, security, data integrityStandardization, consistencyUSABILITY !
18 Closer to Fine: A Philosophy …The human user of any system is the focus of the design process. Planning and implementation is done with the user in mind, and the system is made to fit the user, not the other way around….Bruce WalkerGeorgia Institute of Technology
19 How Do You Know It’s Good?! Usability Test and Evaluation
21 Human Factors in Speech High Error RatesSpeech recognitionBackground noise, intonation, pitch, volumeGrammars (missing words, size limitations)“When speech recognition becomes genuinely reliable, this will cause another big change in operating systems.” (Bill Gates, The Road Ahead 1995)
22 Human Factors in Speech Unpredictable ErrorsGrammarsSound alike words Austin-BostonMissing wordsGrammar size limitationsNote: We do not like using unpredictable machines.
23 Human Factors in Speech User ExpectationsNovice users have high expectations of computers and speechNatural languageNovices expect to say “anything” to the machinei.e. Star TrekSpoken language differs from written language.i.e. ums or uhs appear in spoken language
24 Human Factors in Speech MemorySpeech only systems can be taxing on human memory, i.e. large telephone menu systems.Miller - 7 plus or minus 2
26 List all the U-N-C Charlotte orders. Speech RecognitionList all the U-N-C Charlotte orders.Refers to the technologies that enable computing devices to identify the sound of human voice.
27 Speech Recognition Continuous Recognition Discrete Recognition Allows a user to speak to the system in an everyday manner without using specific, learned commands.Discrete RecognitionRecognizes a limited vocabulary of individual words and phrases spoken by a person.
28 Speech Recognition Word Spotting Recognizes predefined words or phrases.Used by discrete recognition applications.“Computer I want to surf the Web”“Hey, I would like to surf the Web”
29 Speech Recognition Voice Verification or Speaker Identification Voice verification is the science of verifying a person's identity on the basis of their voice characteristics.Unique features of a person's voice are digitized and compared with the individual's pre-recorded "voiceprint" sample stored in the database for identity verification.It is different from speech recognition because the technology does not recognize the spoken word itself.
30 James, here are the U-N-C Charlotte orders. Speech SynthesisRefers to the technologies that enable computing devices to output simulated human speech.James, here are the U-N-C Charlotte orders.
31 Speech Synthesis Formant Synthesis Uses a set of phonological rules to control an audio waveform that simulates human speech.Sounds like a robot, very synthetic, but getting better.
32 Speech Synthesis Concatenated Synthesis Uses computer assembly of recorded voice sounds to create meaningful speech output.Sounds very human, most people can’t tell the difference.