Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Systems Development Why is Packaged Software Sometimes Not Enough? Chapter 12.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Systems Development Why is Packaged Software Sometimes Not Enough? Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems Development Why is Packaged Software Sometimes Not Enough? Chapter 12

2 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Student Learning Outcomes 1.Discuss why organizations develop computer systems 2.List the six phases within the systems development life cycle (SDLC) and describe the major purposes of each 3.Define the people who are included on most project development teams

3 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Student Learning Outcomes 4.Describe the reasons why modeling systems from both a logical and physical perspective is important 5.Define end user development and how it differs from the traditional systems development life cycle (SDLC) and the advantages and disadvantages of end user development 6.Describe why organizations choose to outsource systems development and the major steps in outsourcing

4 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Student Learning Outcomes 5.Define end user development and how it differs from the traditional systems development life cycle (SDLC) and the advantages and disadvantages of end user development 6.Describe why organizations choose to outsource systems development and the major steps in outsourcing

5 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Introduction Organizations today are very dependent on computer systems. To develop successful computer systems requires great skill and knowledge. Most people will not be involved in actually developing systems from scratch but they will certainly be using them.

6 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies 12.1 Why Organizations Develop Systems Become more efficient Level the competitive playing field Achieve an advantage through innovation

7 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Developing Systems to Become More Efficient Some organizations develop systems just to be more efficient in their internal processes New system may not be designed to yield a market advantage but to add to the survivability and the bottom line of an organization by making it more productive

8 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Developing Systems to Level the Competitive Playing Field Developing new systems to stay competitive in the marketplace is often a “reactionary” measure –Example: UPS and the U.S. Postal System developed a tracking system similar to FedEx p Fig. 12.1

9 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Developing a System to Achieve an Advantage Through Innovation FedEx developed its new customer-oriented parcel tracking software to achieve an advantage over its competitors. 1. Until UPS and others were able to develop similar systems FedEx attracted many new customers (away from its competition). 2. FedEx was also able to reduce the number of people handling incoming phone calls for parcel pickup and tracking. Results

10 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Example of Achieving Advantage Through Innovation Self-scanning systems at the grocery store helped to achieve a competitive advantage People can get through the checkout process quickly

11 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies 12.2 The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle p Fig. 12.2

12 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Why Your Participation is Important in the SDLC You are or will be a: –Business process expert –Quality control analyst –Manager of other people Your participation is important

13 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Richmond Blood Center Current System p Fig. 12.3

14 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies First Phase of the SDLC - Systems Investigation 4. Create A Systems Development Project Plan 2. Assess Initial Feasibility 3. Build the Project Team 1. Define the Problem/Opportunity Four tasks:  SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Systems Development Overview”

15 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Investigation p Fig. 12.4

16 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Initial Feasibility Assessment Time feasibility assessment Technical feasibility assessment Fiscal feasibility assessment

17 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Composition of Systems Development: Project Teams System Champion Systems Analyst(s) Several Users Programmer(s) Hardware Specialist(s) Project Manager

18 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Elements of a Systems Development Project Plan p Fig. 12.5

19 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Project Management Software Most project teams use project management software such as Microsoft Project to help them effectively manage the project plan and organize all of the documents associated with the development of a specific project  SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Project Management Applications”

20 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Analysis p Fig. 12.6

21 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Analysis Phase Model how the current system works from a logical point of view Identify current system weaknesses and the opportunities to improve Create a logical model of the new system Review the project plan

22 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Richmond Blood Center Data Flow Diagram (DFD) p Fig. 12.7

23 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Design p Fig. 12.8

24 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Design Phase Generate several alternative technical solutions for the new logical model Select the best technical alternative Develop detailed software specifications Review the project plan

25 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Richmond Blood Center Flowchart p Fig. 12.9

26 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Intranet Protected by a Firewall Richmond Blood Center

27 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Construction p Fig

28 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Construction Phase Acquire and installing new hardware Write software Test the software Review the project plan Note: 80 to 90 percent of all efforts are devoted to this phase

29 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Implementation p Fig

30 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Implementation Phase Convert existing information to the new system Convert users Perform Acceptance testing Review the project plan

31 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Conversion Techniques

32 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Support p Fig

33 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Support Phase Provide a formal mechanism for system review Provide mechanism for requesting changes Evaluate proposed system changes Initiate system changes

34 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Support: Seek Answers Frequently to these Questions 1.Does this system still support the overall business goals? 1.Does this system still support the overall business goals? 2. Do modifications need to be made to this system in light of changes to business processes? 2. Do modifications need to be made to this system in light of changes to business processes?

35 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Support Costs for a System p Fig

36 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies 12.3 End User Development and Prototyping Organizations develop computer systems using three different methods: End User Development SDLC Outsourcing

37 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies End User Development End user development is growing in popularity It is estimated that most organizations have a five year back-log of requests for new proposed systems Organizations are empowering employees to develop small-scale systems themselves

38 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Prototyping Prototyping is the process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed product, service, or system People and organizations perform prototyping all the time i.e., –Automobile manufacturers –Building contractors –Your instructor (sample exam questions)

39 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Prototyping: An Iterative Process 2. Build a prototype from basic requirements 3. Have other users review the prototype and suggest changes 4. Refine and enhance the prototype until it’s complete 1. Identify the basic requirements of the system

40 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Prototyping p Fig SDLC Prototyping End User Development Prototyping

41 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies End User Development Cycle p Fig

42 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Advantages of End User Development Encourages active user participation Improves requirements determination Strengthens user sense of ownership Increases speed of systems development

43 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Disadvantages of End User Development Inadequate expertise leads to underdeveloped systems Lack of organizational focus creates "privatized" system Insufficient analysis and design leads to subpar systems Lack of documentation of a system may lead to its being short lived

44 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies 12.4 Outsourcing Another alternative to developing a computer system Delegation of work to a group outside of your organization for: –A specified period of time –A specified cost –A specified level of service

45 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Ways an Organization Can Outsource Purchasing horizontal software Purchasing vertical market software Hiring an outsource vendor to develop from scratch p Fig

46 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies How Outsourcing Compares to SDLC Organization turns over much of the design, construction, implementation, and support steps to another organization Organization is still responsible for: –Investigation –Analysis –Creating a request for proposal

47 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Outsourcing Cycle p Fig

48 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies A System May be Targeted for Outsourcing When: It is determined that the in-house IT specialists do not have enough time or resources to build a system The organization does not possess the expertise to develop a given system It is determined that it is cheaper to buy prewritten horizontal or vertical market software than it is to develop it from scratch

49 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Building a Request for Proposal (RFP) RFP is a formal document that outlines the logical requirements for the proposed system and invites outsourcing vendors to bid on its development RFP can be long and complex, requiring months to create. Do not rush through it

50 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies RFP: Outsourcing p Fig

51 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Advantages/Disadvantages of Outsourcing

52 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Evaluating an RFP Evaluate all bids and decide on which outsourcing vendor to use Once the vendor is decided upon, a lengthy and legal process follows during which a legally binding document must be developed that both organizations sign stating: –exactly what work is to be carried out –how and when payments will be made –project time frame –how your organization can get out of the contract if the outsourcing vendor does not live up to its end

53 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Test and Accept the Outsource Solution Steps performed during testing and acceptance: –software is completely tested –Train users –Convert old information to the new system –Convert users to the new system If the software does not perform according to the specifications – DO NOT accept the system. Have the outsourcer fix the problem(s) immediately

54 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Systems Support and Relationship Evaluation Perform a periodic review of the system Provide a formal mechanism through which users can request changes, and evaluate their worth Reevaluate your relationship with the outsourcing vendor

55 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

56 12.5 Key Terms End user development Outsourcing Prototyping Request for proposal Systems analyst Systems construction phase Systems design phase Systems implementation phase Systems investigation Systems support Traditional systems development life cycle (SDLC)

57 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Review of Concepts 1.Understanding Your Roles in Each Step of the SDLC  When are you a business process expert, quality control analyst, and manager of other people? 2.Understanding the Relationships among the SDLC and a Request for Proposal 3.Identifying Steps within Phases of the SDLC  A great way to study for your exam

58 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Hands On Projects E-Commerce 1.Researching Horizontal Market Software 2.Buying Sports Gear 3.Buying Event Tickets

59 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Hands On Projects Ethics, Security & Privacy 1.When Should You Consider Ethics, Security, and Privacy while Developing a System?  During which phases is it most important? 2.What to do When Software Produces the Wrong Result  If you won the lottery because of a computer error, should you get the big prize?

60 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Hands On Projects on the Web 1.Researching IT Outsourcing Vendors  Who provides vertical market software for schools? 2.Understanding Degrees of Freedom  Count the clicks 3.Finding Free Flowcharting and Data Flow Diagramming Tools 4.Building Synergistic Teams

61 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Hands On Projects Group Activities 1.Creating a Program Flowchart  How do you get a driver’s license? 2.Identifying Outsourcing at Your School 3.Everyday Prototyping 4.Creating a Data Flow Diagram for a Vending Machine  How do you pay with a cell phone?


Download ppt "Systems Development Why is Packaged Software Sometimes Not Enough? Chapter 12."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google