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© Prentice Hall 2002 11.1 CHAPTER 11 Facilitating User Computing.

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Presentation on theme: "© Prentice Hall 2002 11.1 CHAPTER 11 Facilitating User Computing."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Prentice Hall CHAPTER 11 Facilitating User Computing

2 © Prentice Hall END-USER COMPUTING HANDS-ON USE OF COMPUTERS BY EMPLOYEES HANDS-ON USE OF COMPUTERS BY EMPLOYEES ENTER DATA ENTER DATA MAKE INQUIRIES MAKE INQUIRIES PREPARE REPORTS PREPARE REPORTS PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ANALYZE PROBLEMS ANALYZE PROBLEMS DEVELOP WEB PAGES DEVELOP WEB PAGES*

3 © Prentice Hall PRIMARY DRIVERS AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST MICROCOMPUTERS: AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST MICROCOMPUTERS: –HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES –COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG COLLEGE GRADUATES, PROFESSIONALS INCREASED USER FRUSTRATIONS ABOUT NEW PROJECT BACKLOGS INCREASED USER FRUSTRATIONS ABOUT NEW PROJECT BACKLOGS*

4 © Prentice Hall USER APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT USE OF COMPUTER TOOLS USE OF COMPUTER TOOLS DEVELOP BUSINESS APPLICATIONS DEVELOP BUSINESS APPLICATIONS USERS ARE NOT IS SPECIALISTS USERS ARE NOT IS SPECIALISTS INVOLVES APPLICATION, TOOL & DEVELOPER INVOLVES APPLICATION, TOOL & DEVELOPER*

5 © Prentice Hall USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES INCREASED USER CONTROL OVER PROJECT INCREASED USER CONTROL OVER PROJECT INCREASED USER ACCEPTANCE OF SOLUTION INCREASED USER ACCEPTANCE OF SOLUTION FREES IS RESOURCES FREES IS RESOURCES INCREASES USERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF IT INCREASES USERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF IT*

6 © Prentice Hall USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONS DISADVANTAGES LOSS OF QUALITY CONTROL LOSS OF QUALITY CONTROL INCREASES OPERATIONAL RISKS DUE TO DEVELOPED TURNOVER INCREASES OPERATIONAL RISKS DUE TO DEVELOPED TURNOVER POTENTIAL LABOR/TIME INEFFICIENCIES POTENTIAL LABOR/TIME INEFFICIENCIES LOSS OF INTEGRATION OPPORTUNITIES/CAPABILITIES LOSS OF INTEGRATION OPPORTUNITIES/CAPABILITIES*

7 © Prentice Hall CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATION: APPLICATION: –SCOPE: Personal, departmental, organizational –CRITICALITY/IMPACT: Risk exposure –SIZE & USAGE: One-time, periodic, ongoing –PROBLEM COMPLEXITY: Structure, how common is task?*

8 © Prentice Hall CHARACTERISTICS TOOL: TOOL: –SOPHISTICATION, COMPLEXITY –INTERCONNECTEDNESS DEVELOPER: DEVELOPER: –USER SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY –IS SPECIALIST SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY*

9 © Prentice Hall EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS* STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS ISOLATION: Application does not use or create data for another application ISOLATION: Application does not use or create data for another application STAND-ALONE: Application uses manually entered computer-generated data from reports, printouts STAND-ALONE: Application uses manually entered computer-generated data from reports, printouts MANUAL INTEGRATION: Data electronically transferred from another application, manually (e.g., file on disk) MANUAL INTEGRATION: Data electronically transferred from another application, manually (e.g., file on disk)* * Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

10 © Prentice Hall EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS* STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS AUTOMATED INTEGRATION: Application electronically connected with one or more databases/applications using automated scripts AUTOMATED INTEGRATION: Application electronically connected with one or more databases/applications using automated scripts DISTRIBUTED INTEGRATION: Application uses data created, stored, maintained by organization’s systems under control of IS specialists DISTRIBUTED INTEGRATION: Application uses data created, stored, maintained by organization’s systems under control of IS specialists* * Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

11 © Prentice Hall GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING DEVELOPMENT PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR OTHER USERS DEVELOPED FOR SELF USER ONLY SMALL, SIMPLE LARGE, COMPLEX 1. SDLC OR PROTOTYPING, DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO DEFINITION & IMPLEMENTATION 2. SDLC, CLEAR “HANDS-OFF” BETWEEN PHASES 3. “COLLAPSED” LIFE CYCLE 4. DISCIPLINED, ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

12 © Prentice Hall LEVERAGING END-USER COMPUTING* CONTEXT: CONTEXT: ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL FACTORS DEPARTMENTAL LEVEL FACTORS STATUS OF IS/USER PARTNERSHIP ORGANIZATION LEVEL SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS STRATEGY TECHNOLOGY INDIVIDUAL LEVEL DEVELOPMENTPROCESS TASK TOOL USER DEVELOPER *Based on Branceau & Brown, 1993

13 © Prentice Hall ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL STRATEGY: Strategic objectives and approach to end-user computing STRATEGY: Strategic objectives and approach to end-user computing TECHNOLOGY: Range & accessibility of end-user tools TECHNOLOGY: Range & accessibility of end-user tools SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS: Support services, control policies & procedures SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS: Support services, control policies & procedures*

14 © Prentice Hall EXPANSION/CONTROL MATRIX* HIGH LOW LOWHIGH CONTROL EXPANSION *Based on Monroe et al., ; Brancheau & Amoroso, 1990

15 © Prentice Hall EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTER STAGE ONE: REACTIVE SERVICES REACTIVE SERVICES INDIVIDUAL SOLUTIONS INDIVIDUAL SOLUTIONS PRODUCT TRAINING PRODUCT TRAINING ALL NEEDS SUPPORTED ALL NEEDS SUPPORTED COMPUTER LITERACY TRAINING COMPUTER LITERACY TRAINING ONE-WAY RELATIONSHIPS ONE-WAY RELATIONSHIPS*

16 © Prentice Hall EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTER STAGE TWO: PROACTIVE SERVICES PROACTIVE SERVICES DEPARTMENTAL SOLUTIONS DEPARTMENTAL SOLUTIONS BUSINESS PROBLEM-SOLVING BUSINESS PROBLEM-SOLVING HIGH-PAYOFF NEEDS SUPPORTED HIGH-PAYOFF NEEDS SUPPORTED INFORMATION LITERACY EDUCATION INFORMATION LITERACY EDUCATION ALLIANCE: IS/USER ALLIANCE ALLIANCE: IS/USER ALLIANCE*

17 © Prentice Hall COMMON SUPPORT SERVICES TROUBLESHOOTING TROUBLESHOOTING CONSULTING CONSULTING TRAINING & IS EDUCATION TRAINING & IS EDUCATION PRODUCT RESEARCH & EVALUATION PRODUCT RESEARCH & EVALUATION INFORMATION SHARING INFORMATION SHARING TOOL SELECTION & PURCHASING TOOL SELECTION & PURCHASING TOOL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE & UPGRADING TOOL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE & UPGRADING*

18 © Prentice Hall COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES PRODUCT STANDARDS PRODUCT STANDARDS ERGONOMICS ERGONOMICS PRODUCT PURCHASES PRODUCT PURCHASES INVENTORY CONTROL INVENTORY CONTROL UPGRADE PROCEDURES UPGRADE PROCEDURES QUALITY REVIEW QUALITY REVIEW IDENTIFYING CRITICAL APPLICATIONS & DATA IDENTIFYING CRITICAL APPLICATIONS & DATA*

19 © Prentice Hall COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES DATA ACCESS DATA ACCESS BACKUP PROCEDURES BACKUP PROCEDURES AUDIT TRAILS AUDIT TRAILS DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS UNAUTHORIZED SOFTWARE COPYING UNAUTHORIZED SOFTWARE COPYING VIRUS PROTECTION VIRUS PROTECTION*

20 © Prentice Hall CHAPTER 11 Facilitating User Computing


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