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User Interface Design Components Chapter 11 Handout.

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Presentation on theme: "User Interface Design Components Chapter 11 Handout."— Presentation transcript:

1 User Interface Design Components Chapter 11 Handout

2 Objectives To understand principles for navigation and design To understand principles for input design To understand principles for output design To have the ability to design a user interface

3 Introduction Interface design is the process of defining how the users will interact with the system and how that system accepts inputs and produces outputs Three main mechanisms –Navigation –Input –Output Don’t forget about the GUI’s

4 Navigation Design The goal is to make the system as simple to use—and so that the user hardly gives it any thought Use the assumption that people will not read manuals Use typical controls (like installation prompts) –Use clear controls

5 Basic Navigation Principles Prevent mistakes –Use multiple menus –Gray out commands –Confirm important actions Simplify recovery from mistakes –Allowing the use of UNDO Use consistent grammar order File-saveCopy-paste

6 Navigation Controls Languages –Natural versus programming like SQL –Use of Office Assistant Menus –Broad and shallow as opposed to narrow and deep –One rule—no more than 8 items and 2-3 mouse clicks or keystrokes to execute action –Grouping by interface objects (Customers, Orders) instead of by action (New, Update, Format) Direct Manipulation –Windows Explorer, PowerPoint

7 Messages Error Messages –First should explain the problem –Second, describe how to correct it –Third, provide button(s) for user response ConfirmationAcknowledgementDelayHelp Polite versus impolite Avoid humor and negative wording

8 Input Design Facilitates the input of data into the system and ??? Basic principles –Online or batch processing Can you think of examples for both kinds? –Capture data at the source Avoid multiple entry of same info Can utilize source data automation [examples???] –Minimize keystrokes Utilizing default values

9 Types of Input TextNumbers Selection box Input Validation –Completeness check –Format check –Range check –Check digit check –Consistency check –Database check

10 Output Design Perhaps the most important part of system design because of its visibility and because of ???? Basic Principles –Understand report usage Types of report—all general or specific, real-time or batch—look at business value of the report –Manage information load Balance needed information as opposed to all information available –Minimize bias Ie utilizing alphabetical or numerical listing Graphical displays of bar chart information

11 Types of Outputs Types of Output –Reports DetailedSummary Turnaround document Graphs –Media Paper Electronic—web, CD, others??

12 Now what? Well how do you go about actual creating the interface? Do you just jump right in? You could but….

13 User Interface Design Principles First, user design is an art You must make the interface –pleasing to the eye –simple to use –Minimize the potential for errors One of the biggest challenges is managing space –That is, how do you include all the necessary information without overload the user (well see this in a little bit)

14 Six Main Principles Layout Content Awareness Aesthetics User Experience Consistency Minimal User effort

15 Layout The interface should be a series of areas on the screen that are used consistency for different purposed –Top area for commands and navigation –A middle area for input or output –Bottom area for status information

16 Content Awareness Users should always be aware of where they are in the system and what information is being displayed Including titles, and location menu –Ie Home>>GBA 577>>Lecture Slides Also applies to form/field labels –Proper date formatting MM/DD/YYYY

17 Aesthetics Interfaces should be functional and inviting to users through careful use of white space, colors, and fonts Be careful of trade off concerning white space Try to keep density of form low Design of text should be kept to same size and type –10 point font is often preferred and no less than 8 point –Serif font best for printed reports, sans serif better for computer screens, headings Color and patterns should be used carefully and sparing (10% of men are colorblind)—but of course there are always exceptions –Be careful of high contrast in colors

18 User Experience Although ease of use and ease of learning often lead to similar design decisions, there is another tradeoff –Trying to negotiate between experienced users and novices (ie difference between full and partial menus) Ease of learning – how quickly users can learn new systems Ease of use – how quickly users can use the system once they have learned it

19 Consistency Enables users to predict what will happened before they perform the function Trying to make programs simulate windows or macs Trying to make web interfaces similar to other models (Amazon) Try to use consistent terminology –Customer versus client –Use the same terms/field names for both forms and reports

20 Minimal User Effort Making the interface easy to use, actions should be no more than 3 clicks away

21 User Interface Design Process 1.Use Scenario Development 2.Interface Structure Design 3.Interface Standards Design 4.Interface Design Prototyping 5.Interface Evaluation

22 Use Scenario Development An outline of the steps that the users perform to accomplish some part of their work Think of the library project –Some users may need to find specific information –Others may need more general search results One helpful tool is to think of processes and use modeling tools

23 Interface Structure Design Defines the basic components of the interface and how they work together to provide functionality to the users. This is similar to modeling in the user scenario—except that you draw out how each menu/screen is related to each other Most similar to a Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

24 Specific Interface Standards Interface Metaphors –Using a real world concept as a model for a computer system Paper form or table Online version of a check Interface Objects –Applying an understandable name to the fundamental building blocks of a system Shopping cart example Interface Actions –Specifies the navigation and command style (menus), and grammar Interface Icons –Be careful as some icons are not intuitive Interface Templates –Designing the same appearance for each different page in the system

25 Interface Design Prototyping A mock-up or simulation of a computer screen, form, or report. –Storyboard Hand-drawn pictures of what the screens will look like –HTML Prototype –Language Prototype How do you select which technique?

26 Interface Evaluation The objective is to understand how to improve the design of the system before it is completed. There are four main common approaches –Heuristic evaluation –Walk-Through evaluation –Interactive evaluation –Formal usability testing

27 Heuristic Evaluation Examines the interfaces by comparing it to a set of heuristics or principles of interface design. –Checked separately by at least three members of the project team and then meet together to compare answers

28 Walk-Through Evaluation A meeting conducted with users who will ultimately have to operate the system This usually occurs in the interface design prototyping stage

29 Interface Evaluation Users work individually with a member of the project team on a prototype of the model and discuss what their likes/dislikes Provides additional information or missing functionality

30 Formal Usability Testing Generally some type of scientific testing process that mostly can only be done with language prototypes Can include surveys, video camera recording It is very expensive and must include more than 5 users, but not really more than 10

31 Conclusion At this point you should be able to Understand the navigation, input, and output design principles and techniques Understand the fundamental user interface design principles. Understand the process of user interface design Understand how to design the user interface structure Understand how to design the user interface standards


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