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INPUT DESIGN Input Data Persistent Data Process Output.

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Presentation on theme: "INPUT DESIGN Input Data Persistent Data Process Output."— Presentation transcript:

1 INPUT DESIGN Input Data Persistent Data Process Output

2 Why be concerned about INPUT DESIGN?
Garbage In - Garbage Out (GIGO) Data Verification & Validation (V&V): Self-checking digits or check-digit Combination check Limit and Range checks Completeness checks

3 “Input” involves 3 steps:
1. Collecting 2. Entering 3. Processing “Input” Methods: Batch On-Line (real-time) Hybrid

Collecting and Entering can be done off-line. Entering data can be done by trained personnel. Processing can be done very quickly. Processing can be done during non-peak times.

Data collection usually has to be a centralized activity. Data entry usually needs to be done by specially trained personnel. The processing activity is delayed, hence the possibility exists for data to be considered old or untimely when it finally gets processed. Since processing is usually done during off-hours, input errors detected during processing would not get corrected until the next regularly scheduled processing of input data. The off-hours computer operator may have to call the systems analyst or programmer if the program malfunctions.

The data can be entered by its owners. The data can be entered as close to their origination as possible. Immediate feedback can usually be given regarding the correctness and acceptability of the data. The input data can immediately update a database thus making it as current as possible.

Equipment may be more costly to perform the input. Users are not always well trained to input data. User data entry procedural controls may be lacking. Software must have additional controls to handle it. Data is often only entered during business hours thus impacting the normal computer load. The data entry activity could actually be slower than the equivalent batch processing for the same data.

8 INPUT DEVICES Keyboard Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Mouse
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) Digitizer Image Scanner & Facsimile (Fax) Machines Point-of-Sale Device (POS) Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Mouse Track Ball Joystick Pens Scales Voice Recognition Touch Screen

Input only necessary data Let the system calculate or derive data Use Business Codes where appropriate Movement should be left-to-right, then top-to-bottom

10 BUSINESS CODES Serial - based on arrival time
Sequential - based on an ordered table Block - based on range of letters/numbers Alphabetic - based on an abbreviation or other convention Group - any combination of the above four

11 SERIAL BUSINESS CODES Based on Arrival Time - “first come, first serve” BANK

Based on “meaningful organization” - sorted BANK 1 2 3 4 Bob Carol Sharon Stan This example: sort by first name, then assign a number

13 BLOCK BUSINESS CODES Bank Customer Types
Based on a range of letters and/or numbers Bank Customer Types Merchant/Business A E9999 Personal Checking F M9999 Personal Saving N T9999 Custodial U Z9999 BANK

Based on an abbreviation or some other scheme STATES UNITS OF MEASURE AZ = Arizona CA = California MI = Michigan NY = New York etc.... GA = Gallon QT = Quart PI = Pint YD = Yard FT = Foot IN = Inch etc...

15 Example: Use of a Group Code in a Paint Store
GROUP BUSINESS CODES Legend Product Class Base Color Base Type Unit of Measure = Browns = Greens = Blues = Yellows = Reds 0 = None 1 = Lacquer 2 = Water 3 = Oil P = Paint S = Stain P = Pint Q = Quart G = Gallon P G Paint Product Examples: S G P Q S P Example: Use of a Group Code in a Paint Store

16 Designing for Usability* (Graphical User Interface [GUI] Design)
* Portions Copyright © 1997, Intuitive Design, Carlsbad, CA and based on a presentation by Larry Marine. URL:

Pop-up menus Pull-down menus Drop-down/List boxes Option (Radio) Buttons Check Boxes Text Boxes Spinners Command (Push) Buttons Menu Bars Menu Pads Maximize/Minimize Button Bars Tool Bars Scroll Bars Docking O B J E C T S Modes of Operation: Navigation Data Entry

18 Data Entry Form/Window With Navigation Choices
Command Buttons Option (Radio) Buttons (choose one) Spinner Pop-Up Menu

19 The Prime Objectives Make the user's tasks easier to perform with the information system than without it It should be intuitively obvious to the most casual user Design the interface to meet the user's needs Adapt technology to the user instead of forcing the user to adapt to the technology Meet time and resource allocations Get it out on time and under budget

20 GUI Design Considerations
Icons are often intuitive Consistent use of icons is important Size of icons & text is important Number of icons - not too many Use of color - not too much

21 Five Basic Steps for User Interface Design
Get to know the users Analyze user tasks and goals Establish design and usability goals Storyboard some design ideas Evaluate the designs Repeat as necessary

22 Establish Design and Usability Goals
1 of 3 Establish Design and Usability Goals Design for the most common users and tasks Design for 80% of users and tasks Design for users, not engineers Establish usability metrics Average time to perform a task Maximum number of errors

23 Prioritize the Features
2 of 3 Prioritize the Features Importance to the users or their tasks The most common actions must be addressed first Required time and resources Which features can wait Bells and whistles Future release plans

24 Costs of Not Making a Feature Usable
Increased documentation costs Increased technical support costs Increased training requirements Maintaining backward compatibility $$$ Liability $$$

25 Storyboard Some Ideas Construct usability prototypes Low fidelity
1 of 8 Storyboard Some Ideas Construct usability prototypes Low fidelity Paper and pencil Screen printouts High fidelity Visual basic Hypercard

26 More than One Solution Exists
2 of 8 More than One Solution Exists Generate several designs and test them all When designers cannot agree, test the designs Document the designs and the reasoning behind them This inhibits going back to an old design that has problems

27 Design References Use platform guidelines User Interface Design Books
3 of 8 Use platform guidelines IBM CUA (Common User Access) Windows Style Guide Mac Human Interface Guidelines User Interface Design Books The Design of Everyday Things by Donald Norman Usability Engineering by Jacob Nielsen Practical Guide to Usability Testing by Janice Redish and Joe Dumas About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design by Alan Cooper

28 Exploit User Intuitions and Expectations
4 of 8 Exploit User Intuitions and Expectations Left to right & top to bottom Obvious actions should be default actions Speak the user's language Use terminology that users use Capture user metaphors Word processor = typewriter

29 Remain Consistent ENTER is progressive ESC is regressive
5 of 8 Remain Consistent ENTER is progressive ESC is regressive Avoid custom controls If it behaves the same, it should look the same If it behaves differently, it should look different

30 Make Information Visible
6 of 8 Make Information Visible Human memory is fallible Interfaces that rely on human memory are prone to error Provide the information users need when they need it Suggest formats with examples Provide immediate feedback

31 Provide Obvious Error Control
7 of 8 Provide Obvious Error Control Prevent errors Limit the effect the user has on the system Confirm all destructive actions Make errors recognizable as soon as they occur People believe that what they see is a result of their last action Allow immediate error recovery

32 Careful with Colors Use colors consistently
8 of 8 Careful with Colors Use colors consistently If red is a danger color, don't use it as part of the non-functional aesthetic fluff Never use more than 7 colors No more than 5 is better

Field studies to observe potential users to determine needs Behavioral designers devise conceptual models and ensure that the model works through-out a complete task cycle rather than merely supporting isolated tasks Prototypers create testable models User-testers place models in users’ hands and report what works and what doesn’t Graphical and industrial designers make products attractive to use and affordable to build Technical writers, however good tools communicate their own functionality * Excerpt from: Norman, D.A., The Invisible Computer, MIT Press, as presented in: Coffee, Peter, “When ‘Good Enough’ Is All the Market Needs”, PC Week, September 7, 1998, page 43.

34 That’s all folks!

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