4BATCH INPUT - ADVANTAGES Collecting and Entering can be done off-line.Entering data can be done by trained personnel.Processing can be done very quickly.Processing can be done during non-peak times.
5BATCH INPUT - DISADVANTAGES Data collection usually has to be a centralized activity.Data entry usually needs to be done by specially trained personnel.The processing activity is delayed, hence the possibility exists for data to be considered old or untimely when it finally gets processed.Since processing is usually done during off-hours, input errors detected during processing would not get corrected until the next regularly scheduled processing of input data.The off-hours computer operator may have to call the systems analyst or programmer if the program malfunctions.
6ON-LINE INPUT - ADVANTAGES The data can be entered by its owners.The data can be entered as close to their origination as possible.Immediate feedback can usually be given regarding the correctness and acceptability of the data.The input data can immediately update a database thus making it as current as possible.
7ON-LINE INPUT - DISADVANTAGES Equipment may be more costly to perform the input.Users are not always well trained to input data.User data entry procedural controls may be lacking.Software must have additional controls to handle it.Data is often only entered during business hours thus impacting the normal computer load.The data entry activity could actually be slower than the equivalent batch processing for the same data.
8INPUT DEVICES Keyboard Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Mouse Optical Character Recognition (OCR)Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)DigitizerImage Scanner & Facsimile (Fax) MachinesPoint-of-Sale Device (POS)Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)MouseTrack BallJoystickPensScalesVoice RecognitionTouch Screen
9GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INPUTING DATA Input only necessary dataLet the system calculate or derive dataUse Business Codes where appropriateMovement should be left-to-right, then top-to-bottom
10BUSINESS CODES Serial - based on arrival time Sequential - based on an ordered tableBlock - based on range of letters/numbersAlphabetic - based on an abbreviation or other conventionGroup - any combination of the above four
11SERIAL BUSINESS CODESBased on Arrival Time - “first come, first serve”BANK
12SEQUENTIAL BUSINESS CODES Based on “meaningful organization” - sortedBANK1234BobCarolSharonStanThis example: sort by first name, then assign a number
13BLOCK BUSINESS CODES Bank Customer Types Based on a range of letters and/or numbersBank Customer TypesMerchant/BusinessA E9999Personal CheckingF M9999Personal SavingN T9999CustodialU Z9999BANK
14ALPHABETIC BUSINESS CODES Based on an abbreviation or some other schemeSTATESUNITS OF MEASUREAZ = ArizonaCA = CaliforniaMI = MichiganNY = New Yorketc....GA = GallonQT = QuartPI = PintYD = YardFT = FootIN = Inchetc...
15Example: Use of a Group Code in a Paint Store GROUP BUSINESS CODESLegendProduct Class Base Color Base Type Unit of Measure= Browns= Greens= Blues= Yellows= Reds0 = None1 = Lacquer2 = Water3 = OilP = PaintS = StainP = PintQ = QuartG = GallonP GPaint Product Examples:S GP QS PExample: Use of a Group Code in a Paint Store
17Navigation Data Entry GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) DESIGN O B J E C Pop-up menusPull-down menusDrop-down/List boxesOption (Radio) ButtonsCheck BoxesText BoxesSpinnersCommand (Push) ButtonsMenu BarsMenu PadsMaximize/MinimizeButton BarsTool BarsScroll BarsDockingOBJECTSModes ofOperation:NavigationData Entry
18Data Entry Form/Window With Navigation Choices Command ButtonsOption (Radio) Buttons (choose one)SpinnerPop-Up Menu
19The Prime ObjectivesMake the user's tasks easier to perform with the information system than without itIt should be intuitively obvious to the most casual userDesign the interface to meet the user's needsAdapt technology to the user instead of forcing the user to adapt to the technologyMeet time and resource allocationsGet it out on time and under budget
20GUI Design Considerations Icons are often intuitiveConsistent use of icons is importantSize of icons & text is importantNumber of icons - not too manyUse of color - not too much
21Five Basic Steps for User Interface Design Get to know the usersAnalyze user tasks and goalsEstablish design and usability goalsStoryboard some design ideasEvaluate the designsRepeat as necessary
22Establish Design and Usability Goals 1 of 3Establish Design and Usability GoalsDesign for the most common users and tasksDesign for 80% of users and tasksDesign for users, not engineersEstablish usability metricsAverage time to perform a taskMaximum number of errors
23Prioritize the Features 2 of 3Prioritize the FeaturesImportance to the users or their tasksThe most common actions must be addressed firstRequired time and resourcesWhich features can waitBells and whistlesFuture release plans
24Costs of Not Making a Feature Usable Increased documentation costsIncreased technical support costsIncreased training requirementsMaintaining backward compatibility$$$ Liability $$$
25Storyboard Some Ideas Construct usability prototypes Low fidelity 1 of 8Storyboard Some IdeasConstruct usability prototypesLow fidelityPaper and pencilScreen printoutsHigh fidelityVisual basicHypercard
26More than One Solution Exists 2 of 8More than One Solution ExistsGenerate several designs and test them allWhen designers cannot agree, test the designsDocument the designs and the reasoning behind themThis inhibits going back to an old design that has problems
27Design References Use platform guidelines User Interface Design Books 3 of 8Use platform guidelinesIBM CUA (Common User Access)Windows Style GuideMac Human Interface GuidelinesUser Interface Design BooksThe Design of Everyday Things by Donald NormanUsability Engineering by Jacob NielsenPractical Guide to Usability Testing by Janice Redish and Joe DumasAbout Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design by Alan Cooper
28Exploit User Intuitions and Expectations 4 of 8Exploit User Intuitions and ExpectationsLeft to right & top to bottomObvious actions should be default actionsSpeak the user's languageUse terminology that users useCapture user metaphorsWord processor = typewriter
29Remain Consistent ENTER is progressive ESC is regressive 5 of 8Remain ConsistentENTER is progressiveESC is regressiveAvoid custom controlsIf it behaves the same, it should look the sameIf it behaves differently, it should look different
30Make Information Visible 6 of 8Make Information VisibleHuman memory is fallibleInterfaces that rely on human memory are prone to errorProvide the information users need when they need itSuggest formats with examplesProvide immediate feedback
31Provide Obvious Error Control 7 of 8Provide Obvious Error ControlPrevent errorsLimit the effect the user has on the systemConfirm all destructive actionsMake errors recognizable as soon as they occurPeople believe that what they see is a result of their last actionAllow immediate error recovery
32Careful with Colors Use colors consistently 8 of 8Careful with ColorsUse colors consistentlyIf red is a danger color, don't use it as part of the non-functional aesthetic fluffNever use more than 7 colorsNo more than 5 is better
33USABILITY CONSIDERATIONS* (User-Centered Design) Field studies to observe potential users to determine needsBehavioral designers devise conceptual models and ensure that the model works through-out a complete task cycle rather than merely supporting isolated tasksPrototypers create testable modelsUser-testers place models in users’ hands and report what works and what doesn’tGraphical and industrial designers make products attractive to use and affordable to buildTechnical writers, however good tools communicate their own functionality* Excerpt from: Norman, D.A., The Invisible Computer, MIT Press, as presented in: Coffee, Peter,“When ‘Good Enough’ Is All the Market Needs”, PC Week, September 7, 1998, page 43.