Presentation on theme: "Don Norman’s User-Centered Design"— Presentation transcript:
1Don Norman’s User-Centered Design Applied to teachingFinal Cut Pro for Digital Video EditingKent Golden
2What is User Centered Design? User-centered design is the process in which the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user are given priority during the phases of design.Don Norman’s guidelines suggest optimizing the user interface and experiences, based on how people are able, and want to work, instead of forcing them to adapt and change themselves to work better with the system as designed.
3“Pilot error” and “human error” “Darn these hooves! I hit the wrong switch again! Who designs these instrument panels, raccoons?”
4“Pilot error” and “human error” “The Fuel Light’s on, Frank! We’re all going to die!... We’re all going to die!... Wait, wait…Oh, my mistake – that’s the intercom light.”
5Human Factors: Is the elevator stuck or is the reactor about to melt-down?
6Affordances: Door Quiz Say out loud what action you should use to open the door:PushPull
13Do These help solve the problem? Mean – do they help average person, not tech support person. Error should say – close the program and re-open. If that doesn’t work, reboot. If that doesn’t work, call tech support.
14Norman’s “Seven Principles for Transforming Difficult Tasks into Simple Ones” (Norman 1988): Use both knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head.Simplify the structure of tasks.Make things visible: bridge the gulfs of Execution and Evaluation.Get the mappings right.Exploit the power of constraints, both natural and artificial.Design for error.When all else fails, standardize.
15Apple’s Final Cut Pro Digital Video editing program Expensive ($1,299) Difficult to use (manuals)The standard (especially in Apple circles)EducationArtVery useful once you are familiar with itShow manuals. Example video? Not just advanced iMovie
16Target Population College undergraduates attending Yale University No prior experience with FCP, but some with graphics programsWorkshops at the Yale Digital Media Center for the Arts (DMCA)Many art students (especially those in the fields of Sculpture and Photography) have a need to learn Final Cut Pro to:Record and showcase other art projectsCreate a video project as a direct expression of art
17Instructional TasksEncode digital video from a video deck to a Mac workstationEdit the video:Add titlesVideo transitionsMusicVideo effectsExport the video to a QuickTime file that can be burned to a DVD.
18Applying Theory to Instruction Norman’s 7 User Centered Design principles applied to FCP instruction.
19Use both knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head. “Knowledge in the World” refers to information that exists in the world that we don’t need to memorize to utilize.Don’t need to be able to recall every distinctive feature of a penny to be able to identify one and use it.Loose keyboard letters to professional typists. They were not able to arrange them in the proper configuration.Scaffolding from the world“Knowledge in the Head” refers to memorizationInfo-processing theory STM / LTM / Attention (all limited)Phone tech support with no visualUtilize what KITH they do have – analogies, Photoshop layersAfter workshop, info usually gone. Provide portable “Knowledge in the World”Custom Handouts (screen shots, digital photos)Keyboard shortcuts at topFocus on project, not notes.KITW is like scaffolding – can do a lot if there is information around you that you can work with.
20Simplify the structure of tasks. Make tasks simple in structureMinimize problem solving or planning required to execute tasks.Pay close attention to the psychology and limits of the end-userShort-term memoryLong-term memoryAttentionApplied to FCP workshopsSet specific project for all to work onLimit scope of workshopMake it entertaining and relevant to students (Attention)Limit scope – if really off-topic, talk about individually or after class.Contrasts with constructivism
21Make things visible: bridge the gulfs of Execution and Evaluation. Things should be visible so that people know what is possible and how to do them.People should know what is currently going on and what to do next.FCP shortcomingsEncoding video – How find? Name?Transcoding audioHelp – need to know what you don’t knowTo overcome:Provide overall flow needed to accomplish end goalProvide specific steps on how to do somethingClass follows flow so that students know what is currently going on (with instruction) and what is next.Show FCP and how to get to log and capture.No indication of transcoding audio. Won’t play.Don’t just start giving directions (click her, now click here) – need to know what current goal is.
22Get the mappings right.make sure that the user can determine the relationships:Between intentions and possible actionsBetween actions and their effects on the systemBetween actual system state and what is perceivable by sight, sound, or feelBetween the perceived system state and the needs, intentions, and expectations of the user.FCP problems:Hidden commandsError messagesUnrendered effectsMedia Limit on V1To overcome:Point out common problems in instruction and handoutsPoint students to online webboards– many times having problem and cause is program – think you’ve tried everything, and it turns out to be a small setting or slight variation in a process. Need reminder (handout or web board).
23Exploit the power of constraints, both natural and artificial. “Use constraints so that the user feels as if there is only one possible thing to do – the right thing of course” - Don NormanLego motorcycle policemanFCP problemsThousands of actions possibleNo work flow guidanceTo overcome:Create constraintsCreate guidelinesWhat students have in their mind that they want to do is pretty simple – create constraints based on that goal.
24Design for error“Assume that any error that can be made will be made. Plan for it. Think of each action by the user as an attempt to step in the right direction; an error is simply an action that is incompletely or improperly specified” – Don NormanError MessagesDo not help determine what went wrongDo not help to fix problemDo not help avoid in the futureFCP Example: Linking of Audio and VideoVery commonNo error messageAudio/Video out of syncTo overcome:Assume it will happenWarn of dangerShow how to fix if it happensWhen covering CD audio – reiterateError when reading handoutscarefully word certain things – location of buttons, show pictures with arrowscatch errors with iterative design trialsShow in FCP linking.
25When all else fails, standardize Standardization is a way to deal with things that cannot be designed without arbitrary mappings.Keyboard layoutsTraffic signalsUnits of measurementUseful as long aseveryone uses the samesystemFCP Problem:Setting paths for FCP filesTo overcome:Pick a standard – desktop “My FCP Project”Across students and time – same file locationRelated: Set all Macs to same file system viewThere is little or no compelling reason to have them designed in one way versus another (i.e. why can’t traffic lights be blue, clocks spin counter-clockwise, or a foot be 13 inches?),All macs with same view – could be any of the 3 views, but need to all be seeing same thing
26Assessment Content knowledge vs. user experience Observe behaviors: Do people stare blankly at handouts?Complete sample project?Able to work on their own after workshops?Feedback formsIterative design – use feedback to improve future instruction.They are not expected to become experts in Final Cut Pro with two workshops, but if the instruction can give them a solid foundation of the basics and instill in them the confidence that they can eventually master the program, that would be considered a success.
27CriticsDon Norman’s newer book, “Emotional Design”, reflects on his own overly reductive approach in POET, when more than just utility needs to be considered.Example: Standard vs. Automatic transmissionConstructivists:Complexity vs. Simplifying the structure of tasksEncouraging problem solving vs. Reducing itCan’t have Jasper Woodbury in every situationEdward TufteProgram should be transparent and allow work to happen with minimal interferenceWhile I think that the learning that takes place with programs such as Jasper Woodbury is fantastic, it is also not realistic to put 13 students in a room with Final Cut Pro installed on the computers and tell them to “have at it”, then try to guide them along by not directly answering questions so that they can discover things for themselves. Little would get accomplished in the allotted 4 hours, and I imagine frustration levels with Final Cut Pro would be exceedingly high (as would the attrition rate for workshops attendance).
28Edward TufteNot a critic of Norman per se, but opposite end of design spectrum.OK for graphic design, bad for program design or web design.
29My own thoughtsAll had frustrating experiences with bad design, especially with technologyAudio/Video systemsWebsites – is that a button?Authoring programsTech supportError messagesUCD offers solid guidelines for good designFeedback forms about handouts